2 Introduction* Electrochemistry: the study of the relationship between electron flow and redox reactions.Significance and Applications?What is a redox reaction? An oxidation – reduction reaction in which electrons are transferred (same # e- lost and gained).Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)
3 I. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions A. Introduction 1. Reactions involving the transfer of electrons.2. One species has a desire to lose electrons an another species has a desire to gain electrons. With the correct conditions, energy in the form of current flow is produced.3. Driving force is tendency for electron flow.4. Examples: batteries, combustion, rusting of iron, metabolism of food in the body.
4 B. Definitions Fe Fe2+ + 2 e- 1. Oxidation - The loss of electron(s).Oxidation ReactionM M n n e -While M is oxidized, it acts as an reducing agent because it causes something else to be reduced (i.e.,it gives electrons to something else).Fe Fe e-
5 2. Reduction - The gain of electron(s). Reduction Reaction X n e - X n-While X is reduced, it acts as an oxidizing agent because it causes something else to be oxidized (i.e., it takes electrons from something else).Cl e- 2 Cl-Ag+ + e- Ag
6 E electrons (products) O oxidation the lion says G gain of L loss ofE electrons (products)O oxidationthe lion saysG gain ofE electrons (reactants)R!!! reduction
7 C. Properties of Oxidation-Reduction Rxns 1. “Redox reaction” always consists of the two processes (oxidation and reduction) which occurs simultaneously. One species must lose electrons so that another species can gain those same # of electrons.2. A redox reaction may be recognized if a metal is being oxidized or reduced.Metal gains or loses electrons as it goes from reactants to products.How can we recognize this in a reaction?
8 Cu2+(aq) + Mg(s) Mg2+(aq) + Cu(s) Example ProblemsFor the redox reaction given, identify which reactant is being oxidized, which reactant is being reduced, which is the oxidizing agent, and which is the reducing agent?Cu2+(aq) + Mg(s) Mg2+(aq) + Cu(s)MnO4-(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Mn2+(aq) + Fe3+(aq)
9 D. Related Terminology For Redox Rxns * Recall complete redox reaction always includes both oxidation and reduction.* Half-reaction: One of two parts of an oxidation - reduction reaction, one part of which involves a loss of electrons and the other a gain of electrons.For the reaction: Fe + Cu2+ Fe2+ + Cu1. Write the reduction half reaction.2. Write the oxidation half reaction.
10 Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) d. What is the reducing agent? For the reaction:Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)d. What is the reducing agent?Reducing agent: The reactant that is oxidized.It loses electrons so that some other reactant can be reduced.e. What is the oxidizing agent?Oxidizing Agent: The reactant that is reduced.It gains electrons so that some other reactant can be oxidized.
11 E. Balancing Redox Reactions 1. IntroductionOxidation Number MethodArbitrary book-keeping system for electrons which can be used to identify what is being oxidized or reduced.Half-Reaction Method*** You will be responsible for a simplified version of this.
12 2. Simplified Rules for Balancing Redox A. Split the reaction into half-reactions. (by inspection) B. Balance number of atoms of each element on both sides of each equation by changing coefficients.C. Balance charges on both sides of each equationby adding the appropriate electrons. (Electrons added to more positive side.)D. Same number of electrons must be transferred inredox reaction. Multiply one or both half reactions by a whole number to get same number of electrons transferred.E. Add half-reactions together for balanced redox reaction. Recheck to see that electrons cancel out and atoms of each element balance.
13 Example Problems Balance the following redox reactions: Sn2+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) → Sn4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq)Sb3+(aq) + Sr(s) → Sb(s) + Sr2+(aq)How many mol es of electrons are being transferred in the following balancedredox reaction?2 Al(s) + 3 Cl2(g) → 2 AlCl3(aq)
14 II. Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells A. Introduction1. An electrochemical cell in which a product-favored (spontaneous) redox reaction generates an electric current.2. The reaction produces an electron flow through an outside conductor (wire).3. Examples: batteries
15 B. Example of a Voltaic Cell 1. Reaction Zn(s) Zn2+(aq) e-__Cu2+(aq) + 2 e- Cu (s)________Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)If you just ran the redox reaction in a test tube, the reaction would occur, but no current (energy) would be captured. See slide #15However in a galvanic (voltaic) cell, energy is captured in the form of current flow. Slide # 16.The 2 half-reactions occur in separate half-cells.
17 Redox Reaction With Current Flow (Voltaic Cell)
18 C. Requirements of Galvanic Cell 1. Anode: an electrode (conductor such as metal strip or graphite) where oxidation occurs.2. Cathode: an electrode (conductor such as metal strip or graphite) where reduction occurs.3. Salt Bridge: A tube of an electrolyte (sometimes in a gel) that is connected to the two half-cells of a voltaic cell: the salt bridge allows the flow of ions but prevents the mixing of the different solutions that would allow direct reaction of the cell reactants. Charge does not build up in half cells. Electrical neutrality must be maintained.
20 Cell DiagramsA cell diagram is “shorthand” for an electrochemical cell.The anode is placed on the left side of the diagram.The cathode is placed on the right side.A single vertical line ( | ) represents a boundary between phases, such as between an electrode and a solution.A double vertical line ( || ) represents a salt bridge or porous barrier separating two half-cells.
21 D. Galvanic Cells and Electrical Potential 1. Electron flow in galvanic cell can do work /produce energy.2. Electrical potential energy measured in volts.1 volt = (1 joule) / (1 coulomb)work unit of charge due to6.24 x 1018 electrons3. Coulombs = amperes x secondsC = A x s orA = C / s
22 E. Standard Cell Voltages 1. Cell voltages can be measured under standard conditions (1 atm pressure, 250 C, and 1.0 M concentrations). E0cell.2. The standard cell potential is determined by the equationE0cell = E0red + E0ox3. If E0cell is positive, the net cell reaction is product- favored (spontaneous).4. If E0cell is negative, the net cell reaction is reactant- favored (nonspontaneous).
23 F. Standard Electrode Potentials 1. Standard Electrode Potentials are measured for half-reactions, relative to a standard hydrogen electrode potential (which is assigned 0 volts).2. See Table 18.1 for Standard Electrode Potentialsa. Each half reaction is written as a reduction.b. Each half reaction could occur in either direction.c. The more “+” the standard electrode potential, the greater the tendency to undergo reduction, meaning a good oxidizing agent.
24 d. The more “-” the standard electrode potential, d. The more “-” the standard electrode potential, the greater the tendency to undergo oxidation, meaning a good reducing agent.e. If a half-reaction is written in the reverse direction, the sign of the corresponding standard electrode potential must change.(Same magnitude, opposite in sign)f. If a half-reaction is multiplied by a factor (coefficient), the standard electrode potential is not multiplied by that factor.
25 Selected Electrode (Reduction) Potentials F2(g) + 2e- 2F V F2/F-Au3+ + 3e- Au(s) V Au3+/AuHg2+ + 2e- Hg(l) V Hg2+/Hg2H+ + 2e- H2(g) V H+/H2 Fe2+ + 2e- Fe(s) V Fe2+/FeLi+ + e- Li(s) V Li+/Li
26 G. Problem Solving and Voltaic Cells 1. A voltaic (galvanic) cell is constructed using a pieceof Sn in 1.00 M Sn2+ for one half-cell and a piece of Au in 1.00 M Au3+ for the other half-cell. The reaction is run under standard conditions of pressure and temperature.a. Determine the net cell potential (voltage).b. Determine the net cell reaction.c. What is the oxidizing agent for the net reaction? d. What is the reaction occurring at the anode?e. Sketch the cell information in the following diagram.
28 H. Cell Potential and Gibbs Free Energy A positive E0cell indicates a spontaneous or product-favored reaction. There must be a relationship between E0cell and free energy (ΔG0).ΔG0 = -n F E0celln = # moles electrons transferredF = Faraday constant = 9.65 x 104 C / mol e-(also recall that volt = Joules / Coulomb = J / C)** A positive E0cell would produce a negative ΔG0
29 1. Calculate the standard free energy change (ΔG0) for the reaction below under standard conditions.NiO2 + 2Cl- + 4 H+ Cl2 + Ni H2OE0cell = v
30 I. Equilibrium Constant and Cell Potential We know ΔG0 = -RTlnKeq and: ΔG0 = -n F E0cellTherefore: n F E0cell = -RTlnKeqE0cell = RTlnKeq / nFRearranging: ln Keq = n F E0cell / RT
31 1. Calculate Kc for the following reaction under standard conditions: Cu2+(aq) Ag(s) Cu(s) Ag+(aq)Is the reaction product-favored?Do you expect a large amount of product formed at equilibrium?
32 Thermodynamics, Equilibrium, and Electrochemistry: A Summary From any one of the three quantities Keq, ΔG°, E°cell, we can determine the others.
34 J. Concentration Effects on Cell Potential 1. When all the concentrations in a voltaiccell are 1.0 M, under standard conditions,the cell potential equals the standard cellpotential.2. As concentrations of reactants or productschange, the cell potential (voltage changes).3. When equilibrium is reached, the cellpotential will drop to zero.
36 Mathematical Relationship Nernst Equation R = gas constant = J / mol KT = Kelvin temperaturen = # moles of electrons transferredQ = reaction quotient. What is it??or (easiest to use equation)RTEcell = E°cell – –––– ln QnF
37 Cr3+(aq) + 3 e- Cr(s) E0 = -.76v Problem:A galvanic cell contains Ni2+ (aq) in contact with Ni (s) and Cr3+ (aq) in contact with Cr (s). When [Ni2+] = 1.0 x 10-4 and [Cr3+] = 2.0 x 10-3, determine the value of Ecell . Given:Ni2+(aq) e- Ni(s) E0 = -.25vCr3+(aq) e- Cr(s) E0 = -.76v
38 K. Applications of Voltaic Cells 1. The Lead Storage Battery (Secondary Battery)Anode ReactionPb(s) + HSO41-(aq) PbSO4(s) + H+ + 2e-Cathode ReactionPbO2(s) + 3H+ + HSO41-(aq) + 2e- PbSO4(s) + 2H2O (l)
40 2. Dry Cell Batteries 3. Fuel Cells What are they? Where are they used?How do they differ from batteries?
41 Corrosion of an Iron Piling One way to minimize rusting is to provide a different anode reaction.
42 IV. Electrolytic Cells A. Electrolytic vs. Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells Redox reaction which proceeds spontaneously in a product favored direction, generating electricity.Electrolytic CellRedox reaction in which an electrical current is supplied to drive a nonspontaneous, reaction- favored reaction.
43 B. Properties of Electrolytic Cell 1. Energy requiring (in form of electric current).2. No physical separation needed for the two electrode reactions.3. Usually no salt bridge required.4. Conducting medium is molten salt or aqueous solution.5. For electrolytic redox reaction:E0cell is negative.ΔG0 is positive.Kc is small (<1).
44 C. Electrolysis of Molten Sodium Chloride 1. Redox Reaction: 2 Na+ + 2 e- 2 Na(l) cathode (reduction)2 Cl Cl2(g) + 2 e anode (oxidation)2 Na+ + 2 Cl- 2 Na(l) + Cl2(g) net cell rxn2. Electrolytic Cell:See next slide
47 E. Stoichiometry of Electrolysis 1. Electrons Treated as Stoichiometric Factora. Given the half-reactions:Na+ + e- Na(s) and Cu e- Cu(s)How many mol e- required to form 1 mol Na(s)?How many mol e- required to form 4 mol Cu(s)?***b. Chemical change is directly proportional to*** electron flow (charge).2. Coulomb Relationship*** Charge = current x time2 mol e- = 1 mol Cu(s)1 mol e- = 9.65 x 104 CC = Amps x seconds
49 a. How many moles of electrons are required in an 3. Problem Solvinga. How many moles of electrons are required in anelectrolytic cell to deposit 2.00 grams of chromium,Cr(s), from a solution of CrCl3?
50 b. What mass of aluminum metal can be produced per hour in the electrolysis of a molten aluminum saltby a current of 26 A?
51 F. Applications of Electrolysis Electroplating Refining of MetalsCopperAluminum
52 ElectroplatingElectrolysis can be used to coat one metal onto another, a process called electroplating.Usually, the object to be electroplated, such as a spoon, is cast of an inexpensive metal. It is then coated with a thin layer of a more attractive, corrosion-resistant, and expensive metal, such as silver or gold.