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Energy Changes in Reactions

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Changes in Reactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Changes in Reactions
Chapter 7 Section 3

2 Chemical Bonds and Energy
Chemical energy is the energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance Chemical reactions involve the breaking of chemical bonds in the reactants and the formation of chemical bonds in the products

3 Chemical Bonds and Energy
Breaking Bonds Breaking bonds requires energy There has to be enough energy to break bonds of reacting molecules to get the reaction started Forming Bonds The formation of chemical bonds releases energy Heat and light are examples of what happens when new chemical bonds are formed

4 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
During a chemical reaction, energy is either release or absorbed Exothermic Reactions A chemical reaction that releases energy to its surroundings The energy released as the products form is greater than the energy required to break the bonds in the reactants Combustion is an example of an extremely exothermic reaction

5 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
A chemical reaction that absorbs energy from its surroundings More energy is required to break the bonds in the reactants than is released by the formation of the products Energy of products is greater than the energy of the reactants

6 Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions

7 Conservation of Energy
The total amount of energy before and after the reaction is the same. This is known as the law of conservation of energy

8 Reaction Rate Chapter 7 Section 4

9 Reactions Over Time A reaction rate is the rate at which reactants change into products over time. Reaction rates tell you how fast a reaction is going. Some reactions happen almost instantaneously, while other happen gradually

10 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
The reaction rate depends on how often the particles collide. If the collisions occur more frequently, then the reaction rate increases. Factors that affect reaction rates include temperature, surface area, concentration, stirring and catalysts

11 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Temperature Increase in temperature will generally increase the reaction rate. Increasing the temperature of a substance causes its particles to move faster, on average. Particles that move faster are both more likely to collide and more likely to react.

12 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Surface Area The smaller the particle size of a given mass, the larger is its surface are. An increase in surface area increases the exposure of reactants to one another. The greater the exposure, the more collisions

13 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Stirring Stirring the reactants will generally increase the reaction rate Concentration Concentration refers to the number of particles in a given volume. The more reacting particles that are present in a given volume, the more opportunities there are for collisions For gas, concentration changes with pressure. The greater the pressure of a gaseous reactant, the greater is its concentration, and the faster the reaction rate.

14 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates
Catalysts a substance that affects the reaction rate without being used up in the reaction. Since the catalyst is neither a reactant nor a product, it is written over the arrow

15 Equilibrium Chapter 7 Section 5

16 Types of Equilibria Equilibrium is a state in which the forward and reverse paths of a change take place at the same rate Physical Equilibrium When a physical change does not go to completion, a physical equilibrium is established between the forward and reverse changes

17 Types of Equilibria Chemical Equilibrium
When a chemical reaction does not go to completion, a chemical equilibrium is established between the forward and reverse reactions A reversible reaction is a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products into reactant can happen simultaneously

18 Factors Affecting Chemical Equilibrium
When a change is introduced to a system in equilibrium, the equilibrium shifts in the direction that relieves the change- aka Le Chatelier’s principle Temperature Heat written as a product, then forward reaction is exothermic; in the reverse reaction, heat is a reactant When heat is added to a system, the equilibrium will shift in the direction that removes heat from the system

19 Factors Affecting Chemical Equilibrium
Pressure If pressure is increased, the equilibrium would shift in the direction that decreases the pressure of the system To decrease pressure, the system would favor the reaction that produces fewer gas molecules Concentration Change in concentration of the reactants or products also affects equilibrium

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