23.1 Atomic MassesIn 1961 it was agreed that carbon-12 would serve as the standard used to determine all other atomic masses and would be defined to have a mass of EXACTLY 12 atomic mass units (amu). All other atomic masses are measured relative to this.
3A mass spectrometer is a device for measuring the mass of atoms or molecules. Our book explains how it works, though this will most likely not appear on the AP Chemistry Exam.Electrons are fired at atoms or molecules, turning them into cationsThe cations are accelerated using an electric field, then sent through a magnetic field, which causes them to generate their own magnetic fieldThe cations’ path is changed through perturbation of the magnetic field; the amount of deflection is proportional to its mass; math is used to determine its mass
5Average atomic masses: atoms have masses of whole numbers (without accounting for mass defect), but most elements consist of multiple isotopes with different masses.Percent abundance: percentage of atoms in a natural sample of a pure element represented by a particular isotope
6Using a mass spectrometer to determine isotopic composition An MS gives a readout of samples where masses are shown as “peaks”; each peak represents the proportion (natural abundance) of a specific mass (in this case, isotope) to the other masses (in this case, other isotopes of the element). We have two examples of readouts for neon below. The readout on the right is relatively easy to interpret: the total peak height is 100, so the relative abundance is 91% for neon-20, 3% for neon-21, and 9% for neon-22. This information would be obtained from the readout on the left by carefully measuring peak heights, determining the total, and dividing each peak height by the total.
7Exercise 3.1 The Average Mass of an Element When a sample of natural copper is vaporized and injected into a mass spectrometer, the following figure is obtained. Use the data to calculate the average mass of natural copper. Copper-63 has a mass of amu; copper-63 has a mass of amu. (answer = amu/atom)(62.93 amu)(.6909) + (64.93 amu)(.3091)= amu
83.2 The MoleA mole of any element/compound/etc. contains 6.02 x 1023 particles of it. We refer to this as Avogadro’s number.I prefer using dimensional analysis to solve problems related to moles and stoichiometry, but some of you may be out of practice with this. You might want to use a mole map when you do your homework until you are comfortable with this idea, but you cannot use it on quizzes or tests.Sig figs—stick with 2 decimal places; this generally won’t lead you wrong.
10Exercise 3.2 Determining the Mass of a Sample of Atoms Americium is an element that does not occur naturally. It can be made in very small amounts in a device called a particle accelerator. Using your periodic table, calculate the mass in grams of six atoms of americium. (answer = 2.42 x g Am)6 atoms Am1 mole Am243 g= 2.42 x g6.02 x 1023 atoms1 mole Am
11Exercise 3.3 Determining Moles and Atoms From Mass Calculate both the number of moles and the number of atoms in a 10.0 g sample of aluminum. (answer = moles, 2.23 x 1023 atoms Al)10.0 g Al1 mole Al= moles Al26.98 g0.371 moles Al6.02 x 1023 atoms= 2.23 x 1023 atoms Al1 mole Al
123.3 Molar Mass and Formula Weight Molar mass (MM) is the sum of all the atomic masses in a given chemical formula in units of g/mole. It is also equal to the mass in grams of one mole of a substance.Empirical formula is the ratio of each type of atom in a chemical formula; it can be the same as the chemical formula but it is not always.Ex. for an ionic substance, the formula unit such as MgF2 is really the ratio of cations (Mg2+) to anions (F-)Ex. for a network covalent substance such as silicon dioxide, there are 2 atoms of oxygen for every atom of siliconEx. glucose C6H12O6 can be reduced to the empirical formula CH2OFormula weight is a term used for ionic substances; molecular weight is used for covalent substances; molar mass can be used for all
13Exercise 3.4 Calculating Molar Mass I Juglone is a dye produced from the husks of black walnuts. The formula for juglone is C10H6O3.Calculate the molar mass of juglone. (answer = g/mole)C = 10 x = g C/mole jugloneH = 6 x 1.01 = g H/mole jugloneO = 3 x = g O/mole juglone= g/mole
14Exercise 3.4 ContinuedCalculate the number of moles in a sample of 1.56 x 10-2 g of pure juglone. (answer = 8.96 x 10-5 mol)1.56 x 10-2 g1 mole juglone= = 8.96 x 10-5 molesg
15Exercise 3.5 Calculating Molar Mass II Calculate the mass in grams of a 4.86 mole sample of calcium carbonate. (answer = 486 g)Ca = 1 x = g Ca/moleC = 1 x = g C/mole g/mole calcium carbonateO = 3 x = g O/mole4.86 molesg= g 486 g1 mole CaCO3
16Exercise 3.5 ContinuedCalculate the mass of carbonate ions present in this sample. (answer = 292 g carbonate ions)4.86 moles CaCO31 mole CO32-60.09 g1 mole CaCO31 mole CO32-= g 292 g
17Exercise 3.6 Molar Mass and Numbers of Molecules Calculate the number of carbon atoms present in a 1 μg sample of isopentyl acetate, C7H14O2. (answer = 3 x 1016 carbon atoms)1 μg C7H14O21 mole C7H14O26.02 x 1023 molecules7 carbon atoms1 g1 mole C7H14O2106 μg C7H14O2g1 molecule C7H14O2= 3.24 x 1016 carbon atoms 3 x 1016 carbon atoms
183.4 Elements that Exist as Molecules Pure hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and the halogens exist as DIATOMIC molecules under normal conditions.MEMORIZE!!! Be sure you compute their molar masses as diatomics. We lovingly refer to them as the “gens”, “Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen & the halogens!” Alternatively BrINClHOF or HOBr FINClOthers to be aware of, but not memorize:P4—tetratomic form of elemental phosphorous; an allotropeS8—sulfur’s elemental form; also an allotropeCarbon—diamond and graphite--covalent networks of atoms
193.5 Percent Composition of Compounds Percent composition by massEx. ethanol, C2H5OH C = 2 x = g C/moleH = 6 x = 6.06 g H/mole g/mole ethanolO = 1 x = g O/mole% C = (24.02/46.08) * 100% = 52.13%% H = (6.06/46.08) * 100% = 13.15%% O = (16.00/46.08) * 100% = %Check to make sure the total adds up to 100%
20Exercise 3.7 Calculating Mass Percent Penicillin has the formula C14H20N2SO4. Calculate the mass percent of each element. (answers = 53.82%, 6.47%, 8.97%, 10.26%, and 20.48% respectively)C = 14 x = g C/moleH = 20 x = g H/mole g/mole penicillinN = 2 x = g N/moleS = 1 x = g S/moleO = 4 x = g O/mole% C = (168.14/ ) * 100% = 53.82%% H = (20.20/ ) * 100% = 6.47%% N = (28.02 / ) * 100% = 8.97%% S = (32.07/312.43) * 100% = 10.26%% O = (64.00/ ) * 100% = %
21Keep up with the homework assignments on your sheet. HW TonightKeep up with the homework assignments on your sheet.
223.6 Determining the Formula of a Compound Calculating empirical and molecular formula: remember that the empirical formula is the most-reduced form of the molecular formula, and that the two are sometimes identical.When calculating empirical formula, always assumed there are 100 g of a sample unless you are actually given mass. This works if you are given percentages.Hydrate vs anhydrousHydrates have water (“dot waters”). This water counts in the determination of molar mass.Anhydrous substances do not have water.
23Ex. A compound is composed of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. When 0 Ex. A compound is composed of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. When g of this compound is reacted with oxygen [a.k.a. “burned in air” or “combusted”], g of carbon dioxide and g of water are collected. Determine the empirical formula of the compound.CxHyNz + O2 CO2 + H2Og CO21 mole CO21 mole C12.01 g= g C44.01 g CO21 mole CO21 mole CAs you can see, we can shorten this using mass percent. Now, for hydrogen…water is (2.02/18.02) * 100% = 11.21% hydrogen by mass, so g water * = g H.Therefore, the mass of N in the compound is g.
24g C / g/mole = moles Cg H / 1.01 g/mole = moles Hg N / g/mole = moles NNow, let’s reduce that to get whole-number ratios. The smallest number is , so we’ll divide each number by that to get…moles C/ moles = ~1 Cmoles H/ moles = ~5 Hmoles N/ moles = 1 NSo the empirical formula of the compound is CH5N
25Exercise 3.8 Empirical and Molecular Formulas Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound composed of 71.65% Cl, 24.27% C, and 4.07% H. The molar mass of this compound is g. (answers = C4H5N2O and C8H10N4O2 given answers are wrong)When given percent, assume 100 g.71.65 g Cl / g/mole = moles Cl 1 Cl24.27 g C/ g/mole = moles C 1 C4.01 g H / 1.01 g/mole = moles H 2 HIt’s pretty clear that the empirical formula is CH2Cl (carbon is always listed first, except in the case of acids).
26Continuing…we could reduce these, but it’s pretty clear that the empirical formula is CH2Cl. The given molar mass of this compound is g/mole.The empirical mass is g/mole ( ). We would need to multiply this molar mass by 2 in order to get the actual molar mass, so we will need to multiply everything in the empirical formula by 2 in order to get the molecular formula.Therefore, the molecular formula is C2H4Cl2.
273.7 Balancing Chemical Equations In a chemical reaction, bonds are broken (requires energy) and new bonds are formed (releases energy). A balanced chemical equation shows the relative amounts of reactants and products by molecule or mole.State symbols: s, g, l, aq = solid, gas, liquid, aqueous solution respectivelyIt’s a good idea to begin with the most complicated-looking substance when you balance, and to balance elements lastIf you get stuck, balance the most complicated-looking substance
28Memorize these Metals (M) + halogens (X) MaXb, then balance H2CO3 CO2 + H2O whenever it is formed; never write carbonic acid as a product because it spontaneously decomposes in an open containerMetal carbonates metal oxides + carbon dioxide
29Exercise 3.9 Balancing Chemical Reactions I Chromium compounds exhibit a variety of bright colors. When solid ammonium dichromate, a vivid orange compound, is ignited, solid chromium (III) oxide, nitrogen gas, and water vapor are created. Write and balance the equation for this reaction.(NH4)2Cr2O7(s) Cr2O3(s)N2(g)H2O(g)4
30Exercise 3.10 Balancing Chemical Reactions II At 1000°C, ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to form gaseous nitric oxide (NO(g)) and water vapor. Write and balance the equation for this reaction.4NH3(g)O2(g)5 NO(g)4H2O(g)6
313.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Stoichiometry is the study of the quantities of reactants consumed/products created in chemical reactions. It is very important to Chemistry…and it never goes away.Important thingsWrite correct formulas, or your work and answer will be negatively affectedCalculate correct molar masses or your work and answer will be negatively affectedWrite and balance the chemical equation (correctly…you should see a pattern here)Use a mole ratio obtained from the balanced chemical equation—this is the “heart” of stoichiometryUse the mole map and/or dimensional analysis to solve the problemUse correct units, and label whatever substance you’ve calculated the quantity ofYou’ve done this before. We’re diving right in.
32Exercise 3.11 Stoichiometry I Solid lithium hydroxide is used in space vehicles to remove exhaled carbon dioxide by forming solid lithium carbonate and liquid water. What mass of gaseous carbon dioxide can be absorbed by 1.00 kg of lithium hydroxide? (answer = 920. g)2 LiOH(s) + CO2(g) Li2CO3(s) + H2O(l)1.00 kg LiOH1000 g LiOH1 mole LiOH1 mole CO244.01 g CO2= g CO2 920. g CO21 kg LiOH23.95 g LiOH2 moles LiOH1 mole CO2
33Exercise 3.12 Stoichiometry II Baking soda is often used as an antacid due to the fact that it neutralizes excess hydrochloric acid secreted by the stomach. This results in the formation of sodium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide. If one gram of baking soda is used, how many grams of hydrochloric acid can be neutralized?NaHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)1.00 g NaHCO31 mole NaHCO31 mole HCl36.46 g HCl= g HCl84.01 g NaHCO31 mole NaHCO31 mole HCl
343.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant In some stoichiometry problems, you are clearly given an excess amount of one or more reactants (as in, “calcium carbonate reacts with an excess amount of hydrochloric acid”, etc.). There are many other problems where you are given two quantities that do not “match up” according to their mole ratio. For these types of problems, you will need to determine which reactant is limiting and which one is present in excess. The limiting reactant controls how much of your product(s) is/are made, as well as how much of each of the excess reactant(s) is/are consumed.
35A common example is the formation of ammonia gas from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. First write the equation: N2 + H2 NH3 Now balance the equation: N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 You will likely be given quantities for both reactants. These can be given as moles, grams, etc. You know that you need a ratio of 1 mole nitrogen to 3 moles hydrogen, so you need to convert any units you receive to moles (unless they are given in moles, of course). You’ll need the molar masses of both compounds. Diatomic nitrogen = g/mole and diatomic hydrogen = 2.02 g/mole.
36Convert nitrogen to moles: To continue our example, let’s say you have 25.0 kg of nitrogen and 5.0 kg of hydrogen and you need to determine the mass of ammonia that can be produced, as well as which reactant is limiting, and how much of the excess reactant will be left over.Convert nitrogen to moles:Convert hydrogen to moles:25.0 kg1000 g1 mole N2= moles N21 kg28.02 g N25.0 kg1000 g1 mole H2= moles H21 kg2.02 g H2
37Which reactant is limiting? There should be three times as many moles of hydrogen as nitrogen. Are there more, or less?Which reactant is limiting?There are moles of N2 and moles of H2. It would take moles of hydrogen gas for all of the nitrogen gas to react, so there are fewer than three moles of hydrogen for every mole of nitrogen.Hydrogen is the limiting reactant—once all of it has reacted, some nitrogen will be left over.
38Now use the amount of the limiting reactant to calculate the amount of ammonia we will obtain. Since the reactants were given in kg, we’ll calculate the products in kg.moles H22 moles NH317.04 g NH31 kg NH33 moles H21mole NH31000 g NH3= kg ammonia
39Lastly, we will determine the amount of the excess reactant that is consumed, and subtract it from the original amount to determine how much is left over.moles H21 moles N228.02 g N21 kg N2= kg nitrogen gas reacted3 moles H21mole 21000 g N2We started with 25.0 kg of nitrogen gas, so there must be 1.88 kg nitrogen left over.To check, we started with 30.0 kg of reactants and made kg of our product, so the left over mass should be 1.88 kg.
40I’ve gone through each step separately here, so it looks like a lot of work. This problem also asked three questions; not all limiting reactant problems will do this. Some will skip right to “how much X is formed?” or “how much Y is consumed/leftover?” which leaves you to fill in the individual steps.
41Exercise 3.13 Limiting Reactant Nitrogen gas can be prepared by passing gaseous ammonia over solid copper (II) oxide at high temperatures. The other products of this reaction are solid copper and water vapor. If a sample containing 18.1 g of ammonia reacts with 90.4 g of CuO, which is the limiting reactant?2 NH3(g) + 3 CuO(s) 3 Cu(s) + 3 H2O(g) + N2(g)18.1 g NH3 / g/mole = moles NH390.4 g CuO / g/mole = moles CuOWe would need moles of copper (II) oxide for all of our ammonia to react (1.5 * ). Therefore, the CuO is our limiting reactant.
42Exercise 3.13 ContinuedHow many grams of nitrogen will be formed? (answer = 10.6 g N2)1.136 moles CuO1 mole N228.02 g N2= g3 moles CuO1 mole N2 g
433.10 YieldsTheoretical yield is the amount of product formed when a limiting reactant is completely consumed, under perfect conditions. In other words, it’s the maximum amount you could possibly form. Nature is not so kind.Actual yield is…do I need to define this one?Percent yield is the ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield.
44Exercise 3.14 Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield Methanol (CH3OH) is the simplest alcohol. It can be manufactured by combination of gaseous carbon dioxide monoxide and hydrogen. Suppose 68.5 kg CO(g) and 8.60 kg H2(g) react. Calculate the theoretical yield of methanol. (answer = 6.82 x 104 g or 68.2 kg)CO(g) + 2 H2(g) CH3OH(l)68500 g CO / g/mole = moles CO8600 g H2 / 2.02 g/mole = moles H2We need 4891 moles of hydrogen gas for all of the carbon monoxide to react, but we only have Hydrogen is the limiting reactant.
45Hydrogen is the limiting reactant. We have 4257 Hydrogen is the limiting reactant. We have moles of hydrogen gas, which we can use to find the theoretical yield of methanol.CO(g) + 2 H2(g) CH3OH(l)moles H21 mole CH3OH32.05 g CH3OH= g or 68.2 kg CH3OH2 moles H21 mole CH3OH
46Exercise 3.14 ContinuedIf 3.57 x 104 g of methanol are actually produced, what is the percent yield of methanol? (answer = 52.3%)(35700 g/68200 g) * 100% = 52.3 % yield