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Chem II: Block 10.14.14 Infinite Campus: Chemical Reactions Exam Replacement Labs (30pts.) Objectives: I can predict and simplify double replacement reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chem II: Block 10.14.14 Infinite Campus: Chemical Reactions Exam Replacement Labs (30pts.) Objectives: I can predict and simplify double replacement reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chem II: Block Infinite Campus: Chemical Reactions Exam Replacement Labs (30pts.) Objectives: I can predict and simplify double replacement reactions. I can distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions. I can balance oxidation-reduction (Redox) reactions.

2 Double Replacement Reactions Complete 4.24 problems.

3 Chem II Period: Infinite Campus Update: Single Replacement Lab (12pts.) Double Replacement Lab (14pts.) Objectives: Chemical Reaction Gallery Walk Completion Distinguish between Aqueous Reactions

4 Chemical Reaction Gallery Walk: Assess peers work and document evidence of participation by recording answers on study guide.

5 Chemical Reaction Review

6

7 Solubility Ranges Soluble: > 0.1M concentration of solute dissolved in solution. Insoluble: < M concentration of solute dissolved in solution. Slightly soluble: between M and 0.1 M of solute dissolved in solution.

8 Double Replacement Reactions *Why is it ionic compounds differ in the degree of solubility with water? Use the image below to come up with an educated guess.

9 Aqueous Reactions Aqueous Reactions are reactions that occur in solution. Aqueous Reactions: 1.Replacement Reactions 2.Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions 3.Acid-Base Reactions *Distinguish between the three types of reactions above that occur in solution.

10 Oxidation Reduction Reactions

11 Also called Redox Reactions One reactant becomes oxidized (lose electrons) and one reactant becomes reduced (gains electrons). (spontaneous /non-spontaneous). Transfer of electrons from the oxidized reactant to the reduced reactant.

12 LEO goes GER LEO: lose electron(s) oxidized GER: gain electron(s) reduced animals.nationalgeographic.com

13 Redox Reactions Ex. 2Ca + O > 2CaO How do you know which reactant is oxidized (LEO) and which reactant is reduced (REO) in a redox reaction? Assigning oxidation numbers for elements in the reaction.

14 Oxidation Number Rules 1. For an atom that is not combined with any other kind of atom its oxidation number is zero. Ex. Mg 0, Fe 0, H 2 0 (all diatomic molecules) 2.A monatomic ion’s oxidation number is equal to its charge. Ex. Mg 2 = oxidation number is 2+ Cl 1- = oxidation number is 1-

15 Oxidation Number Rules 3. The sum of the oxidation number for all atoms in a compound (ionic or covalent) is zero. Ex. H 2 1 O -2 = zero Ex. NaCl 1- = zero

16 Oxidation Number Rules 4. The oxidation number for oxygen in a compound is -2. Ex. C 4 O 2 2- *Exceptions: a.peroxides (O 2 ) 2- the oxidation number is -1 Ex. H 2 1 O 2 1- a.Bonded to F: oxidation number is positive (1 + or 2 + ) Ex. O 1+ F 1- F > O electronegativity

17 Electronegativity Values

18 Oxidation Number Rules 5. Hydrogen: When bonded to a non-metal it is 1+ (most common) Ex. H 1 Cl 1- When bonded to a metal it will be 1-. Ex. Mg 2+ H 2 1

19 Oxidation Number Rules 6. Polyatomic Ions: The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a polyatomic ion has to equal the charge on that ion. Ex. (Cl 5 O 3 2- ) 1-

20 Oxidation Number Rules 7.In covalent compounds that do not contain hydrogen or oxygen, the most electronegative element has an oxidation number equal to its charge as an ion. Ex. P 5 Cl 5 1-, Cl> P with electronegativity

21 Electronegativity Values

22 Chem II: Block Infinite Campus: Chemical Reactions Exam Replacement Labs Due: Element’s Oxdiation #s: qts. 4.49; 4.50 from text Objectives: I can distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions using oxidations numbers. I can balance oxidation-reduction (Redox) reactions.

23 Oxidation Numbers: qts a.SO 2 b.COCl 2 c. (MnO 4 ) - : Mn =7+ O = 2- d. H(BrO): O = 2-; Br= -1; H = +1 *(BrO) 1- =hypobromite ion e.As 4 f. K 2 O 2 : O = 1- (peroxide ion); K= 1+

24 Oxidation Numbers: 4.50 a. b. c. d. e. f.

25 Oxidation Numbers: Assessment Assign an oxidation number for each element in the examples below: 1. H 2 2. Cu 3. Fe 2 O 3 4. N 2 O 5 5. H(NO 3 ) 6. CCl 4 8. Cr(CO 3 ) 9. OF Ca(OH) 2

26 Oxidation Numbers: Assessment Assign an oxidation number for each element in the examples below: 1. H 2 2. Cu 3. Fe 2 O 3 4. N 2 O 5 5. H(NO 3 ) 6. CCl 4 8. Cr(CO 3 ) 9. OF Ca(OH) 2

27 Chem II: Block Due: Oxidation/Reduction Worksheet Objectives: I can distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions using oxidations numbers. I can balance oxidation-reduction (Redox) reactions.

28

29 Redox Reactions Ex. 2Ca + O > 2CaO a.Assign oxidation numbers for each element on on reactant and products side. b.Identify and explain which element was reduced in this reaction. c.Identify and explain which element was oxidized in this reaction.

30 Redox Reactions: Half Reactions Ex. 2Ca + O > 2CaO Half-Reactions: Separates/identifies the oxidized and reduced reactions that occur simultaneously in nature-why called Redox reactions. Oxidized Reaction: Reduced Reaction:

31 Chem II: Block Due: Redox Reaction Worksheet Objectives: I can distinguish between oxidation and reduction reactions using oxidations numbers. I can balance oxidation-reduction (Redox) reactions.

32 Redox Reactions Practice Problems 1. Classify each half reaction as oxidation or reduction. a. Ba ----> Ba e- b. 2H e > H 2 2. Using oxidation numbers, predict if the reactions below are redox reactions. a. Fe (s) + Cu(SO 4 ) (aq) ----> Fe(SO 4 ) (aq) + Cu (s) b. NaCl (aq) + Ag(NO 3 ) (aq) ---> Na(NO 3 ) (aq) + AgCl (s)

33 Redox Reactions

34 Chem II: Block Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I identify the redox half-reactions. I can balance redox reactions.

35 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acidic Solutions Cu (s) + NO 3 - (aq) ----> Cu 2+ (aq) + NO 2 (g) a. Validate this is a redox reaction by using oxidation numbers to establish the half-reactions.

36 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acidic Solutions

37 Redox Reactions: Half Reactions Gallery Walk

38 Redox Reactions Quiz Complete Redox Reaction Quiz

39 Chem II: Block Infinite Campus: Redox Reaction Quiz (20pts.) Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions)

40 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acidic Solutions Cu (s) + NO 3 - (aq) ----> Cu 2+ (aq) + NO 2 (g)

41 Balancing Redox Reactions Assign oxidation numbers to identify half-reactions. Balance each half reaction with the following steps: a.Balance all elements besides O and H. b.Balance O by adding H 2 O molecules c.Balance H atoms by adding H+ ions d.Balance charge by adding electrons so that the charge on each side is equal. e.Make sure # of e- being lost = # of e- being gained. f.Add the two half-reactions together and cross out substances that appear on both sides.

42 Balancing Redox Reactions Assign oxidation numbers to identify half-reactions. Balance each half reaction with the following steps: a.Balance all elements besides O and H. b.Balance O by adding H 2 O molecules c.Balance H atoms by adding H+ ions d.Balance charge by adding electrons so that the charge on each side is equal. e.Make sure # of e- being lost = # of e- being gained. f.Add the two half-reactions together and cross out substances that appear on both sides.

43 Chem II: Block Infinite Campus: Redox Reaction Quiz (20pts.) Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions)

44 Redox Reactions: Gallery Walk Complete your redox reaction. Observe two other redox reactions, checking your peers answer.

45 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acid H 2 O 2 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4 --> Mn(SO 4 ) + O 2 + H 2 O

46 Redox Reactions

47 Ag(NO 3 ) + Cu --> a.Predict Products b.Assign Oxidation Numbers to validate if redox reaction. c.If redox, identify and explain what is oxidized and what is reduced.

48 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acidic (Cr 2 O 7 ) -2 (aq) + I - (aq)----> Cr 3+ (aq) + (IO 3 ) - (aq)

49 Chem II: Block Infinite Campus: Redox Reaction Quiz (20pts.) Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions)

50 Balancing Redox Reactions: Basic NO 2 - (aq) + Al(s) -----> NH 3 (aq) + Al(OH) 4 - (aq)

51 Balancing Redox Reactions: Basic

52 Balancing Redox Reactions Balance half reactions with peers via gallery walk. Self-assess peers work by making changes where needed. Record your answers on a separate sheet of paper.

53 Balancing Redox Reactions: Acidic (Cr 2 O 7 ) -2 (aq) + I - (aq)----> Cr 3+ (aq) + (IO 3 ) - (aq)

54 Chem II: Block Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions) (Redox Reaction Lab) Homework: Complete post-lab qts.

55 Redox Reaction Lab

56 Redox Titration Lab

57 Redox Titration Lab H 2 O 2 + KMnO 4 + H 2 (SO 4 )  Mn(SO 4 ) + K 2 (SO 4 ) + O 2 + H 2 O Pre-Lab: 1.Practice reading and working stopper on Buret. (Measure out 15 mL of water 3xs from buret, validate volume with graduated cylinder. 2. Complete pre-lab questions from lab

58 Chem II: Block Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions) (Redox Reaction Lab) Homework: Complete post-lab qts.

59 Redox Reaction Lab H 2 O 2 + K(MnO 4 ) + H 2 (SO 4 ) --> Mn(SO 4 ) + K 2 (SO 4 ) + O 2 + H 2 O Oxidized Element: O H 2 O > O 2 Reduced Element: Mn (MnO 4 ) > Mn 2+ Balanced Equation?

60 Redox Reaction Lab At least get two trials completed. Work on pre-lab qts. 5 and post-lab qts.

61 Chem II: Block Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions) (Redox Reaction Lab) I can apply stoichiometry to balanced chemical equations. Homework: Stoichiometry Problems

62 Redox Reaction Lab H 2 O 2 + K(MnO 4 ) + H 2 (SO 4 ) --> Mn(SO 4 ) + K 2 (SO 4 ) + O 2 + H 2 O Oxidized Element: O H 2 O > O 2 Reduced Element: Mn (MnO 4 ) > Mn 2+ Balanced Equation?

63 Chem II: Block Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions) (Redox Reaction Lab pre/post lab qts.) I can apply stoichiometry to balanced chemical equations. (Apply to Redox Reactions) Homework: Stoichiometry Problems Conclusion to Redox Lab Redox with Stoichiometry Exam-Friday

64 Redox Reaction Lab

65 Redox Reaction Lab: Due Thursday pre/post lab qts. complete Calculate percent error of H 2 O 2 concentration add to post-lab qts. Establish a conclusion-paragraph format -addresses purpose of lab -analysis and accuracy of your data/class’s data -what did you learn from the lab -modification(s) if could repeat lab

66 Redox Reaction Lab: Due Thursday pre/post lab qts. complete Calculate percent error of H 2 O 2 concentration add to post-lab qts. Establish a conclusion-paragraph format -addresses purpose of lab -analysis and accuracy of your data/class’s data -what did you learn from the lab -modification(s) if could repeat lab

67 Stoichiometry Stoichiometry: Converting between substances in a balanced chemical equation using mole conversions.

68 Stoichiometry

69 Redox Reactions: Stoichiometry Applications 2 H 2 O + NO Al(s) ----> NH AlO 2 - a.If we start with 3.8 moles of NO 2 - how many moles of AlO 2 - could be produced? b. If we want 13 grams of NH 4 + ion, how many grams of Al would we need to start with?

70 Redox Reactions: Percent Yield 2 H 2 O + NO Al(s) ----> NH AlO 2 - a.If we start with 3.8 moles of NO 2 - how many moles of AlO 2 - could be produced? If 7.0 moles AlO 2 - was actually produced in the lab, what would the percent yield be? b. If we want 13 grams of NH 4 + ion, how many grams of Al would we need to start with? If 34.8 g of Al was actually produced in the lab, what would the percent yield be?

71 Percent Yield Percent Yield: (Actual/Theoretical) x 100

72 Chem II: Block Due: Stoichiometry Problems Objectives: I can classify reactions as redox reactions using oxidations numbers. I can identify redox half-reactions. (oxidation/reduction) I can balance redox reactions. (acidic/basic solutions) (Redox Reaction Lab pre/post lab qts.) I can apply stoichiometry to balanced chemical equations. (Apply to Redox Reactions) Homework: Redox Reactions and Stoichiometry Review

73 Redox Titration Lab Results Lab GroupAvg. volume of KMnO 4 % of H 2 O 2 in Solution (Avg.) % Error H 2 O

74 Redox Reaction Lab: Extension Problem H 2 O 2 + K(MnO 4 ) + H 2 (SO 4 ) --> Mn(SO 4 ) + K 2 (SO 4 ) + O 2 + H 2 O Oxidized Element: O H 2 O > O 2 Reduced Element: Mn (MnO 4 ) > Mn 2+ Balanced Equation?

75 Redox Reaction Lab: Extension of Lab

76 Stoichiometry Worksheet

77 Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactants Limiting Reactant: Excess Reactant: en.wikipedia.org

78 Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactants Limiting Reactant: completely consumed Excess Reactant: partially consumed en.wikipedia.org

79 Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactant HCl + Mg > MgCl 2 + H 2 1.What type of reactions is this? 2.Balance equation if needed. 3.If 6.8 moles of Mg react with 7.5 moles of HCl which is considered the limiting reactant? excess reactant? ReactantsHave (moles)Need (moles)

80 Stoichiometry: Limiting Reactant 2HCl + Mg > MgCl 2 + H 2 1.If 6.8 moles of Mg react with 7.5 moles of HCl how many moles of MgCl 2 can be produced? ReactantsHave (moles)Need (moles) HCl (limited)7.5 mol13.6 Mg (excess)6.8 mol3.75


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