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PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Chapter 5 Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko The.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Chapter 5 Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko The."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Chapter 5 Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko The Working Cell © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 Introduction The plasma membrane and its proteins enable cells to survive and function. Aquaporins are membrane proteins that function as water channels. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Introduction This chapter addresses how working cells use membranes, energy, and enzymes. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 M EMBRANE S TRUCTURE AND F UNCTION © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins with many functions Biologists use the fluid mosaic model to describe a membrane’s structure, a patchwork of diverse protein molecules embedded in a phospholipid bilayer. The plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability. The proteins embedded in a membrane’s phospholipid bilayer perform various functions. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Figure 5.1 Phospholipid Cholesterol Membrane proteins Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Extracellular side of membrane Fibers of extracellular matrices (ECM) Cytoplasmic side of membrane O2O2 CO 2

7 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Diffusion of small nonpolar molecules O2O2 CO 2

8 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Solute molecules Channel protein Active transport protein Transport Proteins ATP Allow specific ions or molecules to enter or exit the cell

9 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Enzymes Initial reactant Product of reaction Enzymes Some membrane proteins are enzymes Enzymes may be grouped to carry out sequential reactions

10 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Extracellular matrix Attachment protein Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Attachment Proteins Attach to the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton Help support the membrane Can coordinate external and internal changes

11 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Signaling molecule Receptor protein Receptor Proteins Signaling molecules bind to receptor proteins Receptor proteins relay the message by activating other molecules inside the cell

12 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Junction protein Junction Proteins Form intercellular junctions that attach adjacent cells

13 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Attached sugars Glycoprotein Protein that recognizes neighboring cell Glycoproteins Serve as ID tags May be recognized by membrane proteins of other cells

14 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Phospholipid Cholesterol Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Extracellular side of membrane Fibers of extracellular matrices (ECM) Cytoplasmic side of membrane O2O2 CO 2 Diffusion of small nonpolar molecules Enzyme Attachment protein Receptor protein Channel protein Active transport protein ATP Junction protein Glyco- protein Junction protein Enzyme

15 The spontaneous formation of membranes was a critical step in the origin of life Phospholipids, the key ingredient of biological membranes, spontaneously self-assemble into simple membranes. The formation of membrane-enclosed collections of molecules was a critical step in the evolution of the first cells. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Figure 5.2 Water-filled bubble made of phospholipids

17 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane with no energy investment Diffusion is the tendency of particles to spread out evenly in an available space. Particles move from an area of more concentrated particles to an area where they are less concentrated. This means that particles diffuse down their concentration gradient. Eventually, the particles reach dynamic equilibrium, where there is no net change in concentration on either side of the membrane. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 Figure 5.3a Molecules of dye Pores Membrane Net diffusion Equilibrium

19 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.3b Net diffusion Equilibrium Net diffusion Equilibrium

20 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane with no energy investment Diffusion across a cell membrane does not require energy, so it is called passive transport. Diffusion down concentration gradients is the sole means by which oxygen enters your cells and carbon dioxide passes out of cells. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane One of the most important substances that crosses membranes by passive transport is water. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called osmosis. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane If a membrane, permeable to water but not to a solute, separates two solutions with different concentrations of solute, water will cross the membrane, moving down its own concentration gradient, until the solute concentration on both sides is equal. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Figure 5.4 Solute molecule Selectively permeable membrane Water molecule Solute molecule with cluster of water molecules Osmosis H2OH2O Lower concentration of solute Higher concentration of solute More equal concentrations of solute

24 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms Tonicity is a term that describes the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water. The tonicity of a solution mainly depends on its concentration of solutes relative to the concentration of solutes inside the cell. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms How will animal cells be affected when placed into solutions of various tonicities? In an isotonic solution, the concentration of solute is the same on both sides of a membrane, and the cell volume will not change. In a hypotonic solution, the solute concentration is lower outside the cell, water molecules move into the cell, and the cell will expand and may burst. In a hypertonic solution, the solute concentration is higher outside the cell, water molecules move out of the cell, and the cell will shrink. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 Figure 5.5 Animal cell Hypotonic solution (lower solute levels) Isotonic solution (equal solute levels) Hypertonic solution (higher solute levels) H2OH2O LysedNormalShriveled H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O

27 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms For an animal cell to survive in a hypotonic or hypertonic environment, it must engage in osmoregulation, the control of water balance. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 The cell walls of plant cells, prokaryotes, and fungi make water balance issues somewhat different. The cell wall of a plant cell exerts pressure that prevents the cell from taking in too much water and bursting when placed in a hypotonic environment. But in a hypertonic environment, plant and animal cells both shrivel. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Hypotonic solution (lower solute levels) Isotonic solution (equal solute levels) Hypertonic solution (higher solute levels) Figure 5.5 Plant cell Turgid (normal) Flaccid Plasma membrane Shriveled (plasmolyzed) H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O

30 Transport proteins can facilitate diffusion across membranes Hydrophobic substances easily diffuse across a cell membrane. However, polar or charged substances do not easily cross cell membranes and, instead, move across membranes with the help of specific transport proteins in a process called facilitated diffusion, which does not require energy and relies on the concentration gradient. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Figure 5.6 Solute molecule Transport protein

32 Some proteins function by becoming a hydrophilic tunnel for passage of ions or other molecules. Other proteins bind their passenger, change shape, and release their passenger on the other side. In both cases, the transport protein helps a specific substance diffuse across the membrane down its concentration gradient and thus requires no input of energy. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 Because water is polar, its diffusion through a membrane’s hydrophobic interior is relatively slow. The very rapid diffusion of water into and out of certain cells is made possible by a protein channel called an aquaporin. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 Cells expend energy in the active transport of a solute In active transport, a cell must expend energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient. The energy molecule ATP supplies the energy for most active transport. The following figures show the four main stages of active transport. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 Figure Transport protein Solute Solute binds to transport protein. 1

36 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Transport protein Solute ATP Solute binds to transport protein. ATP provides energy for change in protein shape. 1 2

37 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Transport protein Solute ATP Solute binds to transport protein. ATP provides energy for change in protein shape. Protein returns to original shape and more solute can bind

38 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules across membranes A cell uses two mechanisms to move large molecules across membranes. 1. Exocytosis is used to export bulky molecules, such as proteins or polysaccharides. 2. Endocytosis is used to take in large molecules. In both cases, material to be transported is packaged within a vesicle that fuses with the membrane. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 There are two kinds of endocytosis. 1. Phagocytosis is the engulfment of a particle by the cell wrapping cell membrane around it, forming a vacuole. 2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis uses membrane receptors for specific solutes. The region of the membrane with receptors pinches inward to form a vesicle. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is used to take in cholesterol from the blood. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 Figure Phagocytosis Pseudopodium EXTRACELLULAR FLUID CYTOPLASM “Food” or other particle Food vacuole Receptor-mediated endocytosis Coat protein Receptor Specific molecule Coated pit Coated vesicle

41 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Phagocytosis Pseudopodium EXTRACELLULAR FLUID CYTOPLASM “Food” or other particle Food vacuole

42 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Receptor-mediated endocytosis Coat protein Receptor Specific molecule Coated pit Coated vesicle

43 E NERGY AND THE C ELL

44 Cells transform energy as they perform work Cells are miniature chemical factories, housing thousands of chemical reactions. Some of these chemical reactions release energy, and others require energy.

45 Energy is the capacity to cause change or to perform work. There are two basic forms of energy. 1. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. 2. Potential energy is energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or structure.

46 Thermal energy is a type of kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules. Thermal energy in transfer from one object to another is called heat. Light is also a type of kinetic energy; it can be harnessed to power photosynthesis.

47 Chemical energy is the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction and the most important type of energy for living organisms to power the work of the cell.

48 Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. The word system is used for the matter under study. The word surroundings is used for everything outside the system; the rest of the universe.

49 Two laws govern energy transformations in organisms. Per the first law of thermodynamics (also known as the law of energy conservation), energy in the universe is constant. Per the second law of thermodynamics, energy conversions increase the disorder of the universe. Entropy is the measure of disorder or randomness.

50 Automobile engines and cells use the same basic process to make the chemical energy of their fuel available for work. In the car and cells, the waste products are carbon dioxide and water. Cells use oxygen in reactions that release energy from fuel molecules. In cellular respiration, the chemical energy stored in organic molecules is used to produce ATP, which the cell can use to perform work.

51 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Fuel Energy conversionWaste products Gasoline Oxygen Heat energy Combustion Kinetic energy of movement Carbon dioxide Water Energy conversion in a car + + Glucose Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water + + Heat energy Energy conversion in a cell ATP Energy for cellular work ATP Cellular respiration

52 Chemical reactions either release or store energy Chemical reactions either release energy (exergonic reactions) or require an input of energy and store energy (endergonic reactions).

53 Exergonic reactions release energy. These reactions release the energy in covalent bonds of the reactants. Burning wood releases the energy in glucose as heat and light. Cellular respiration involves many steps, releases energy slowly, and uses some of the released energy to produce ATP.

54 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Reactants Energy Products Amount of energy released Potential energy

55 An endergonic reaction requires an input of energy and yields products rich in potential energy. Endergonic reactions start with reactant molecules that contain relatively little potential energy but end with products that contain more chemical energy.

56 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.11b Reactants Energy Products Amount of energy required Potential energy

57 Photosynthesis is a type of endergonic process. In photosynthesis, energy-poor reactants (carbon dioxide and water) are used, energy is absorbed from sunlight, and energy-rich sugar molecules are produced.

58 Chemical reactions either release or store energy A living organism carries out thousands of endergonic and exergonic chemical reactions. The total of an organism’s chemical reactions is called metabolism. A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds.

59 Energy coupling uses the energy released from exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions, typically using the energy stored in ATP molecules.

60 ATP drives cellular work by coupling exergonic and endergonic reactions ATP, adenosine triphosphate, powers nearly all forms of cellular work. ATP consists of adenosine and a triphosphate tail of three phosphate groups.

61 Hydrolysis of ATP releases energy by transferring its third phosphate from ATP to some other molecule in a process called phosphorylation. Most cellular work depends on ATP energizing molecules by phosphorylating them.

62 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Triphosphate Adenosine P ATP P P

63 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Triphosphate Adenosine P ATP H2OH2O Diphosphate ADP Phosphate Energy P P PPP Adenosine

64 There are three main types of cellular work: 1.chemical, 2.mechanical, and 3.transport. ATP drives all three of these types of work.

65 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical work ATP P ReactantsProduct formed ADP + P P ATP P ADP + P P ATP P ADP + P P Transport work Transport proteinSolute transported Mechanical work Motor proteinProtein filament moved

66 A cell uses and regenerates ATP continuously. In the ATP cycle, energy released in an exergonic reaction, such as the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration, is used in an endergonic reaction to generate ATP from ADP.

67 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.12c ATP synthesis is endergonic ATP hydrolysis is exergonic Energy from cellular respiration (exergonic) Energy for cellular work (endergonic) ATP ADP +P

68 H OW E NZYMES F UNCTION

69 Enzymes speed up the cell’s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers Although biological molecules possess much potential energy, it is not released spontaneously. An energy barrier must be overcome before a chemical reaction can begin. This energy is called the activation energy (because it activates the reactants).

70 We can think of activation energy as the amount of energy needed for a reactant molecule to move “uphill” to a higher-energy but an unstable state so that the “downhill” part of the reaction can begin. One way to speed up a reaction is to add heat, which agitates atoms so that bonds break more easily and reactions can proceed, but too much heat will kill a cell.

71 Enzymes function as biological catalysts, increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction, and are usually proteins (although some RNA molecules can function as enzymes). Enzymes speed up a reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to begin.

72 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Products Reactant Energy Activation energy barrier Without enzyme

73 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Reactant Products Enzyme Energy Activation energy barrier reduced by enzyme With enzyme

74 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Reactants Progress of the reaction Products a b c Energy

75 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction An enzyme is very selective in the reaction it catalyzes and has a shape that determines the enzyme’s specificity. The specific reactant that an enzyme acts on is called the enzyme’s substrate. A substrate fits into a region of the enzyme called the active site. Enzymes are specific because only specific substrate molecules fit into their active site. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

76 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction The following figure illustrates the catalytic cycle of an enzyme.

77 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Enzyme (sucrase) Active site The enzyme available with an empty active site 1

78 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Enzyme (sucrase) Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit. Substrate (sucrose) Active site The enzyme available with an empty active site 1 2

79 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure The substrate is converted to products H2OH2O Enzyme (sucrase) Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit. Substrate (sucrose) Active site The enzyme available with an empty active site 1 2 3

80 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Glucose Fructose The products are released The substrate is converted to products H2OH2O Enzyme (sucrase) Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit. Substrate (sucrose) Active site The enzyme available with an empty active site

81 For every enzyme, there are optimal conditions under which it is most effective. Temperature affects molecular motion. An enzyme’s optimal temperature produces the highest rate of contact between the reactants and the enzyme’s active site. Most human enzymes work best at 35–40°C. The optimal pH for most enzymes is near neutrality.

82 Many enzymes require nonprotein helpers called cofactors, which bind to the active site and function in catalysis. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the ions of zinc, iron, or copper. If a cofactor is an organic molecule, such as most vitamins, it is called a coenzyme.

83 Enzyme inhibition can regulate enzyme activity in a cell A chemical that interferes with an enzyme’s activity is called an inhibitor. Competitive inhibitors block substrates from entering the active site and reduce an enzyme’s productivity.

84 Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to the enzyme somewhere other than the active site, change the shape of the active site, and prevent the substrate from binding.

85 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.15a Substrate Enzyme Active site Normal binding of substrate Competitive inhibitor Noncompetitive inhibitor Enzyme inhibition

86 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. PABA is necessary for bacteria in producing Folic Acid. Humans get their Folic acid as a dietary Vitamin B9. Sulfanilamide blocks the bacterial enzymes that convert PABA to folic acid thus killing them. The Medical use of Sulfanilamide was discovered in 1935 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1939 to Gerhard Domagk

87 Enzyme inhibition can regulate enzyme activity in a cell Enzyme inhibitors are important in regulating cell metabolism. In some reactions, the product may act as an inhibitor of one of the enzymes in the pathway that produced it. This is called feedback inhibition. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

88 Figure 5.15b Feedback inhibition Enzyme 1 Reaction 1 A Starting molecule Product – Enzyme 2 Reaction 2 B Enzyme 3 Reaction 3 CD

89 Many drugs, pesticides, and poisons are enzyme inhibitors Many beneficial drugs act as enzyme inhibitors, including ibuprofen, which inhibits an enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins (messenger molecules that increase the sensation of pain and inflammation), some blood pressure medicines, some antidepressants, many antibiotics, and protease inhibitors used to fight HIV. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

90 Enzyme inhibitors have also been developed as pesticides and deadly poisons for chemical warfare.

91 REVIEW

92 You should now be able to 1.Describe the fluid mosaic structure of cell membranes. 2.Describe the diverse functions of membrane proteins. 3.Relate the structure of phospholipid molecules to the structure and properties of cell membranes. 4.Define diffusion and describe the process of passive transport. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

93 You should now be able to 5.Explain how osmosis can be defined as the diffusion of water across a membrane. 6.Distinguish between hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. 7.Explain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion. 8.Distinguish between exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

94 You should now be able to 9.Define and compare kinetic energy, potential energy, chemical energy, and heat. 10.Define the two laws of thermodynamics and explain how they relate to biological systems. 11.Define and compare endergonic and exergonic reactions. 12.Explain how cells use cellular respiration and energy coupling to survive. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

95 You should now be able to 13.Explain how ATP functions as an energy shuttle. 14.Explain how enzymes speed up chemical reactions. 15.Explain how competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors alter an enzyme’s activity. 16.Explain how certain drugs, pesticides, and poisons can affect enzymes. © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

96 Passive transport (requires no energy) Active transport (requires energy) Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Higher solute concentration Lower solute concentration Osmosis Higher free water concentration Solute Water Lower free water concentration Higher solute concentration ATP Lower solute concentration

97 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Molecules cross cell membranes by passive transport (a) may be moving down moving against requires (b) ATP diffusion (d) uses (e) (c) polar molecules and ions of uses by P

98 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. b. c. a. d. f. e.

99 © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.


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