Presentation on theme: "Quiz Ch 6 What molecule does the human body use for energy for all it’s activities? Answers for question 2 and 3 include: carbon dioxide, oxygen, water,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Quiz Ch 6What molecule does the human body use for energy for all it’s activities?Answers for question 2 and 3 include:carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, glucose, ATP2. Name one of the molecules (reactants)that the body uses in respiration to make energy.3. Name one of the products of respiration.4. What organelle is important for cellular respiration?5. T/F Redox reactions involve movement of electrons.
2 Space PlantsThe following is a transcript of the video clip, which is approximately 3.5 minutes in length.Video Transcript[Narrator] When the first mission to Mars is launched, people will live in space for extended lengths of time. They will need to produce food, water, and oxygen to survive. NASA scientists are experimenting on plants to develop onboard greenhouses that do just that. In one experiment, volunteer Nigel Packham spent two weeks in a pair of airtight containers. Instead of oxygen canisters, wheat plants provided all the air he needed to breathe.[Narrator] Plants absorbed the carbon dioxide Nigel breathed out and used it to produce the oxygen they both needed to survive. This exchange worked even when he exercised. As Nigel used up more oxygen and produced more carbon dioxide, the plants absorbed more carbon dioxide and produced more oxygen.[Packham] “The plants have performed wonderfully. They react very quickly to me being here and to changes in my metabolic output. For example, if I sit on the bicycle and start exercising for 30 minutes, and I tend to put out a lot more carbon dioxide, the plants react very, very rapidly to that. So, it’s almost as if they know I’m here.”[Narrator] After two weeks, the experiment ended and Nigel emerged in good health. The results show that people can depend on plants for oxygen in an artificial environment. Now scientists want to know how long that balance can last. In another experiment, a NASA team manipulates the growing conditions of vegetable-yielding plants. Using artificial nutrients and high-intensity lamps, David Bubenheim grows plants 10 to 20 times more densely then they occur in nature. This is helpful for producing food in very limited spaces. Based on this prototype, they determined the size of a greenhouse needed to support a crew headed for Mars.[Bubenheim] “This chamber is about 200 square feet and for a crew of four people, it would be able to supply and recycle all the air and water but it wouldn’t supply a 100 percent of the food in that case. To do that, you would need an area about four times this large or a chamber about this size per person.”[Narrator] Since areas that large aren’t practical in space, Bubenheim hopes that changing the color of light can solve the problem. Plants used in these experiments gather the energy they need from light rather than sunlight. Changing the color of this light will change the way the plants grow.[Bubenheim] “If you look at these wheat plants that are growing under white light, like plants would outside, where all colors of the spectrum are represented, you can see that there are a number of smaller side shoots that are grown.”[Narrator] Side shoots are waste that has to be recycled, but growing wheat under blue lights eliminates these shoots, leaving the important center shoot unharmed. Red light works in much the same way.[Narrator] Scientists now want to know if the color of light has the same effect on plants other than wheat. If so, they’ll be one step closer to an efficient plant-based system that can support life in space.
3 Space PlantsWhy are NASA scientists researching plants as a life-support system for long-term space flight?Why are we talking about plants and how they make oxygen?Checkpoint questions are intended to help your students review the basic terms, facts, and information presented in the video segment. Alternatively, you may find these questions helpful if you have a personal response system integrated into your classroom.Questions and AnswersWhy are NASA scientists researching plants as a life-support system for long-term space flight?b. Packaged food will require too much room.—Option b is the best answer. For long-term space travel, a life-support system that recycles will require less room and weight than carrying packaged food. Option a may be true, recycling carbon dioxide is only one consideration. Space travelers also require food and oxygen. Option c is not accurate. A plant-based life-support system will require a great deal of monitoring to maintain it at peak operating performance. Although true, Option d is not a serious consideration. Not just any plant will meet the conditions required by a working space station. Option e is not correct because Option b is a reasonable answer to the question.
4 Sunlight energyECOSYSTEMPhotosynthesisin chloroplastsCO2GlucoseTogether, these two processes are responsible for most of the energy needs of life on EarthPlants give off oxygen and we take in oxygen. We use this oxygen along with glucose to make ATP. ATP is one of the products of cellular respiration.++H2OO2Cellular respirationin mitochondriaFigure 6.1 The connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.We all hlive together and actually help each otherATP(for cellular work)Heat energy
6 Cellular Respiration Reaction C6H12O6+ 6O26CO2+ 6H2O+ATPsGlucoseOxygenCarbondioxideWaterEnergyCellular respiration is a process that releases energy from the bonds in glucose and captures the energy as ATPCellular respiration produces 38 ATP molecules from each glucose moleculeFigure 6.3 Summary equation for cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + H2O + energy
12 NADH ATP NAD+ + 2e– Controlled release of H+ energy for synthesis of ATPH+Electron transportchainFigure 6.5C In cellular respiration, electrons fall down an energy staircase and finally reduce O2.2e–H+12O2H2O
13 NADH ATP NAD+ + 2e– Controlled release of H+ energy for synthesis Reduced or oxidized?NADHNAD+ATP+2e–Controlledrelease ofenergy forsynthesisof ATPH+Electron transportchainFigure 6.5C In cellular respiration, electrons fall down an energy staircase and finally reduce O2.2e–H+12O2Reduced or oxidized?Redox reactions involve the transfer of electronsH2O
15 High-energy electrons NADHHigh-energy electronscarried by NADHMitochondrionNADHFADH2andGLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACIDCYCLEGlucosePyruvateanimationCytoplasmInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.6 An overview of cellular respiration.CO2CO2ATPATPATPSubstrate-levelphosphorylationSubstrate-levelphosphorylationOxidativephosphorylation
16 Glycolysis What goes in . . . What comes out . . . Net 2 ATP produced 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADHGlucosePyruvate and NADH will continue on in respiration to be the reactants of subsequent reactionsi.e. - The Citric Acid CycleThe cell is very efficient and recycles molecules again and again
17 Glycolysis Know this figure Glucose 2 ADP 2 NAD+ + 2 P 2 NADH 2 ATP + Figure 6.7A An overview of glycolysis.2 Pyruvate
18 High-energy electrons NADHHigh-energy electronscarried by NADHMitochondrionNADHFADH2andGLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACIDCYCLEGlucosePyruvateanimationCytoplasmInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.6 An overview of cellular respiration.CO2CO2ATPATPATPSubstrate-levelphosphorylationSubstrate-levelphosphorylationOxidativephosphorylation
20 High-energy electrons NADHHigh-energy electronscarried by NADHMitochondrionNADHFADH2andGLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACIDCYCLEGlucosePyruvateanimationCytoplasmInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.6 An overview of cellular respiration.CO2CO2ATPATPATPSubstrate-levelphosphorylationSubstrate-levelphosphorylationOxidativephosphorylation
21 CITRIC ACID CYCLE Acetyl CoA CoA CoA 2 CO2 3 NAD+ FADH2 FAD 3 NADH Figure 6.9A An overview of the citric acid cycle: Two carbons enter the cycle through acetyl CoA, and 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP exit the cycle.AsetilE as in petFAD3NADH3 H+ATPADP +P
22 Citric Acid Cycle What goes in . . . What comes out . . . Net 2 ATP produced (1 per each Acetyl CoA molecule)1Acetyl CoA + 1Oxaloacetate1Oxaloacetate + 1ATP + 3NADH + 1 FADH + 2CO2Oxaloacetate is the reactant for the next cycle of the citric acid cycleNADH and FADH will continue on in respiration to be reactants of the next reactioni.e. – Oxidative Phosphorylation
23 High-energy electrons NADHHigh-energy electronscarried by NADHMitochondrionNADHFADH2andGLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACIDCYCLEGlucosePyruvateanimationCytoplasmInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.6 An overview of cellular respiration.CO2CO2ATPATPATPSubstrate-levelphosphorylationSubstrate-levelphosphorylationOxidativephosphorylation
24 So far, from 1 molecule of glucose, We have produced10 NADH (2 from glycolysis, 2 from pyruvate processing, 6 from citric acid cycle)2 FADH4 ATPNADH and FADH are our electron carriers that we have been building up in order to enter oxidative phosphorylation phaseThey will now enter that process and fulfill their purpose:They have been carrying high energy electrons. They will now donate these electrons to produce ATP
25 High-energy electrons NADHHigh-energy electronscarried by NADHMitochondrionNADHFADH2andGLYCOLYSISOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)CITRIC ACIDCYCLEGlucosePyruvateanimationanimationCytoplasmInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.6 An overview of cellular respiration.CO2CO2ATPATPATPSubstrate-levelphosphorylationSubstrate-levelphosphorylationOxidativephosphorylation
26 Electrons: Stair Stepping Down in Energy As each electron is passed from protein complex to protein complex it loses energyThe energy is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane to form a gradientEach electron steps down an “energy stair” with each passageUntil it reaches its final destination and it accepted by oxygenOxygen will simultaneously accept the electrons and the H+ ions to form water
27 NADH ATP NAD+ + 2e– Controlled release of H+ energy for synthesis of ATPH+Electron transportchainFigure 6.5C In cellular respiration, electrons fall down an energy staircase and finally reduce O2.2e–H+12O2H2O
29 NADH ATP NAD+ + 2e– Controlled release of H+ energy for synthesis Know this figureNADHNAD+ATP+2e–Controlledrelease ofenergy forsynthesisof ATPH+Electron transportchainFigure 6.5C In cellular respiration, electrons fall down an energy staircase and finally reduce O2.2e–H+12O2H2O
33 i INTERMEMBRANE SPACE H+ Stator Rotor Internal rod Cata- lytic knob Fig. 9-14INTERMEMBRANE SPACEH+StatorRotorInternalrodCata-lyticknobFigure 9.14 ATP synthase, a molecular millADP+PATPiMITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
34 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Potential energy from electrons is used to synthesize ATPElectrons in NADH and FADH contain potential energy.This energy is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane.The H+ gradient contains potential energy.This energy is used to activate ATP synthase.ATP synthase converts this energy and stores it in the form of ATP.H+H+H+H+H+Proteincomplexof electroncarriersH+H+ElectroncarrierH+H+ATPsynthaseIntermembranespaceInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.10 Oxidative phosphorylation, using electron transport and chemiosmosis in the mitochondrion.FADH2FADElectronflowNADHNAD+21O2+ 2H+H+MitochondrialmatrixH+ADP +H+PATPH2OH+Electron Transport ChainChemiosmosisOXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
35 OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Potential energy from electrons is used to synthesize ATPElectrons in NADH and FADH contain potential energy.This energy is used to pump H+ ions across the membrane.The H+ gradient contains potential energy.This energy is used to activate ATP synthase.ATP synthase converts this energy and stores it in the form of ATP.H+H+H+H+H+Proteincomplexof electroncarriersH+H+ElectroncarrierH+H+ATPsynthaseIntermembranespaceInnermitochondrialmembraneFigure 6.10 Oxidative phosphorylation, using electron transport and chemiosmosis in the mitochondrion.FADH2FADElectronflowNADHNAD+21O2+ 2H+H+MitochondrialmatrixH+ADP +H+PATPH2OH+Electron Transport ChainChemiosmosisOXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
36 Many poisons and antibiotics affect the electron transport chain. What would happen to a human or a bacteria if you stopped ATP synthase? One of the electron transporters?
37 Reviewing the big picture C6H12O6+ 6O26CO2+ 6H2O+ATPsGlucoseOxygenCarbondioxideWaterEnergyKnow the overall equation for cellular respirationWhere do each of these reactants get consumed?Where are the products produced?38 ATP from each glucose molecule in aerobic respirationOxygen consumed as last electron acceptorCo2 produced in pyruvate grooming and citric acid cycleH2O produced when O2 accepts electrons and H come across gradient2ATP produced in glycolysis, 2 ATP in cirtic acid and 34 atp in electron transportNADH = 3 ATPFADH = 2 ATP
38 How many calories are released when 1 gram of glucose is completely broken down in the presence of oxygen?Each gram of sugar can provide 1.2 X ATPor 4 caloriesEach gram of fat can provide 2.7 X ATPor 9 caloriesSo. . . it is much harder to burn off a pound of fat because it can contain so many calories. It produces more than two times the amount of ATP.
39 How many calories do you have to burn to lose a pound? It is commonly said that a gram of fat contains 9 calories. But there are 454 grams in a pound, and 9 x 454 = 4086 calories, not 3500.The reason for the discrepancy is that body fat, or adipose tissue, contains not only fat, but also other substances including protein, connective tissue, and water. The dietary fat referred to in the nutritional analysis of food is pure.
41 Low carb dietsLow carb diets are based on the theory that restricting the amount of carbohydrates you eat will cause your body to burn fat to obtain the energy it needs.When we eat, our bodies convert digestible carbohydrates into blood sugar (glucose), our main source of energy, which is stored in our liver as glycogen. When we greatly restrict our intake of carbohydrates, to the point where our liver's store of glycogen is depleted and our bodies do not find the usual source of energy readily available, they turn to our fat stores.
43 Low carb dietsThrough a process called ketosis, our body fat is "burned" or turned into fuel to provide the energy we need. Our bodies run on ketones instead of blood sugar.Ketosis is related to halitosis (acetone)Do low carb diets work in the long run?Huge amounts of fat and proteinIncreased cholesterol, kidney stones, decreased bone densityIn the first week or two of a low-carbohydrate diet a great deal of the weight loss comes from eliminating waterBody can still use proteins and fats that you are eating for energy
44 At Atkins, we believe in science - the science it took to develop our program, the science that backs it up and the scientific approach we use to continually improve everything we do.Our NEW and evolved diet is not the often perceived "all you can eat -- bacon, egg, and cheese diet” or the "NO CARBS DIET" as some would have you believe; but instead; Atkins is a diet rooted in the science of eating fewer refined carbohydrates and refined sugars – what we refer to as “bad carbs.”As you will discover, the new Atkins Diet is an optimally balanced lifetime eating plan with the flexibility to meet each individual’s unique physical condition addressing factors such as age, gender, level of physical activity, and metabolic rate. The lifetime eating plan incorporates "ALL" food groups while focusing on eating some of the best foods on earth.
45 Dr Atkins dies in 2003He is credited with revolutionizing the diet world with his theory that you can lose weight by eating fat, and his followers hailed him as a pioneer. His critics accused him of selling a dangerous idea, but Atkins dismissed their claims.Atkins' diet books were some of the best-selling books of all time."See, that's a big mistake ... to tell people to restrict calories," Atkins told CNN in January. "They lose the weight, they feel fine, then they get to their goal weight and they still have 60 more years to live, and are they going to go hungry for all 60 years?"Atkins was a cardiologist and businessman, selling supplements and food on his Web site and at the Atkins Center for Complementary Medicine.All of his best-selling diet books promoted the same philosophy: a diet high in fat and protein and low in carbohydrates is a sure way to lose weight."It's not that it needs to be low-calorie. As long as you cut out the carbohydrate the weight loss is automatic," Atkins said.
46 Food, such as peanuts Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Sugars Glycerol Fatty acidsAmino acidsAminogroupsOXIDATIVEPHOSPHORYLATION(Electron Transportand Chemiosmosis)Figure 6.15 Pathways that break down various food molecules.CITRICACIDCYCLEAcetylCoAGlucoseG3PPyruvateGLYCOLYSISATP
47 Is fermentation your friend? Figure 6.13C Fermentation vats for wine.
50 Glucose2NAD+2 ADPDuring intense exercise, this lactic is produced faster than is can be removed from the muscles, used to be thought this is what made you sore the next day2PGLYCOLYSIS2ATP2NADH2 Pyruvate2NADHFigure 6.13A Lactic acid fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+ and produces lactate.2NAD+2 LactateLactic acid fermentation
51 Lactic Acid Fermentation What goes in . . .What comes out . . .Net 2 ATP producedHow many ATP are produced with respiration?1 glucose+ 2 NAD+2 Lactate + 2ATP + 2NADHCompare this to respiration in which 38 ATP are produced for each molecule of glucose
52 Are you a better sprinter or distance runner? It is generally accepted that muscle fiber types can be broken down into two main types: slow twitch muscle fibers and fast twitch muscle fibersHuman muscles contain a genetically determined mixture of both slow and fast fiber types, usually about 50/50 but the percentage of muscle fiber type varies from person to person
53 Nick Harrison wins the Melbourne Marathon Distance runnersThe slow twitch muscles are more efficient at using oxygen to generate more ATPThis allows continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long timeThey fire more slowly than fast twitch fibers and can go for a long time before they fatigueTherefore, slow twitch fibers are great at helping athletes run marathons and bicycle for hoursNick Harrison wins the Melbourne Marathontheage.comWhat type of energy making process are slow twitch muscles using?
54 Sprinters/body builders Fast twitch fibers use anaerobic metabolism to create fuelMuch better at generating short bursts of strength or speed than slow muscles.They fatigue more quickly. Fast twitch fibers generally produce the same amount of force per contraction as slow muscles, but they get their name because they are able to fire more rapidly.They are not effective in longer-term training, but are very useful in brief, high-intensity training like we see in sprinting, bodybuilding, or powerliftingWhat type of energy making process are slow twitch muscles using?Fermentation or respiration?
55 Are Athletes Born or Built? Can Training Change Fiber Type? Fiber type is part of a great athlete's success, but it alone is a poor predictor of performance. There are many other factors that go into determining athleticism, including mental preparedness, proper nutrition and hydration, getting enough rest, and having appropriate equipment and conditioning. Genetically determined lugn capacity and cardiac outputJury is still out on whether certain types of traing can change muscle fiber type
56 Do you like the white or the dark meat? Chickens have fast and slow twitch muscle, tooDark meat, like in the drumstick, is mostly made up of slow twitch fibersChickens use their legs for walking and standing, which they do for extended periodsWhite meat, like in chicken wings and breasts, is mostly made up of fast twitch muscleThey use their wings for quick bursts of flight
57 White or dark meat? WikiAnswers Are chicken wings considered dark meat?White vs. Dark Chicken MeatChicken wings, like the breast, are white meat.Chicken wings are white meat. I worked at KFC (management) for nearly 10 years. Wings are white meat!
59 Alcoholic Fermentation What goes in . . .What comes out . . .Net 2 ATP producedHow many are produced with respiration?1 glucose+ 2 NAD+2 Ethanol + 2 CO2+ 2ATP + 2NADHCompare this to respiration in which 38 ATP are produced for each molecule of glucose
60 Glucose 2 ADP 2 NAD+ 2 P 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 Pyruvate 2 NADH 2 CO2 GLYCOLYSIS2ATP2NADH2 Pyruvate2NADH2CO2releasedFigure 6.13B Alcohol fermentation oxidizes NADH to NAD+ and produces ethanol and CO2.2NAD+2 EthanolAlcohol fermentation
61 Alcoholic Beverages Made by fermentation Beer, wine The chemical reaction of yeast on sugarsHarvesting hopsBeersMost beers are made from barley maltGround up malt is added to barley to make mashMash is combined with the flavoring, hops, and fermentation beginsThe fermentation can last for several weeksCan use open fermentation and rely on vigorous yeast action to produce a protective CO2 blanketThe average beer is somewhere between 2-6% alcohol
62 WineMade from grapesCrush grapesFerment the juicesMost wines are ferment for 4 years or moreContain 7-24% alcoholWhy do beer/wine fermentation reactions have to take place in areas without oxygen?Why does wine have a higher alcohol percentage than beer?
63 WineMade from grapesCrush grapesFerment the juicesMost wines are ferment for 4 years or moreContain 7-24% alcoholIf oxygen were present than yeast would use the far more efficient mechanism of respirationThe yeasts differ. Most beer yeasts cannot tolerate high concentrations of alcohol. When a brewer wants to ferment a high-alcohol beer, he uses a champagne yeast or specially-bred yeast to finish the fermentation.
64 There will be a quiz next class. It will cover chapters 5 and 6.