3 IntroductionIn any stoichiometry problem we start with a given quantity of a reactant or product. We use conversion factors and unit analysis to determine the quantities of the unknowns that react or form.Conversion factors:1. Molar Mass : ________________2. Mole Ratio : _____________3. Molar Volume of a Gas: ______________
4 The GENERAL PROCESSStart or Stop where needed to solve for desired unit from the given information.Grams or Liters of known substanceMoles of known substanceMoles of unknown substanceGrams or Liters of unknown substance
5 Mole to Mole Mole Ratio: Mole ratio comes from: ___________________ Example: Find all mole ratios for the reaction of the combustion of ethane.___C2H6 + ___O2 ___CO2 + ___H2O
6 Mole to Mole - Problem Solving Process: Use a mole ratio to convert from moles of known to moles of unknown.
7 Mole-Mole Example:How many moles of CO2 will be produced from the combustion of 0.575mol of C2H6?
8 Mole to Mass Problems: Start with a given number of moles, convert to unknown number of grams. Problem Solving Process:
9 Mole to Mass ExampleIn photosynthesis, plants use the sun’s energy to produce glucose and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. How many grams of glucose are produced when 5.25 moles of Carbon Dioxide react with excess water?
14 Mass to MassIndustrial solvent Carbon disulfide is produced in the following unbalanced reaction:C + SO2 CS COHow many grams of CS2 and CO are formed if 12.5g of SO2 react?
15 Volume Problems Recall the standard molar volume of a gas:22.4 L/mol This is true only at STP: 1 ATM and 0 degree CAvogadro’s Law:Since a mole of any gas occupies the same volume as any other gas, a volume ratio is the same as a mole ratio.Ex: __1_ N _3__ H2 __2_ NH3Mole Ratios: 1 mol N2: mole H2: 2 mol NH3Volume Ratios: 1L N2: 3 L H2: 2 L NH3
19 LR – How To To find the Limiting reactant in a chemical reaction: Pick a reactant and assume it is the LR.Calculate the amount of the other reactant needed to use up all of the LR.Compare the amount needed to the amount available, for the second reactant. (given in the problem.)If you have enough of it (more available than needed) then it is the XS reactant, and you guessed right: The first reactant is the LRIf you don’t have enough of it (more needed than you are given) then you guessed wrong: the second reactant is the LR and the first is in XS.
20 2 H O2 2 H2ODetermine the LR of the reaction when given 1.22g O2 and 1.05g H2.
21 H2 + Cl2 2HClDetermine the LR of the reaction when given 2.92g Cl2 and 3.65g H2.
22 % Yield in a Chemical Reaction Actual Yield =Expected Yield =Actual Yield is always less than expected yield and there are several reasons for this:
23 Actual Yield is always less than expected yield Actual Yield is always less than expected yield. There are several reasons for this:
24 % Yield Example Problem When 4.9g of Magnesium are burned in excess oxygen, 6.5g of Magnesium oxide are formed. What is the % yield of the chemical reaction?