Presentation on theme: "Section “Limiting” Reagent"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 12.3 - “Limiting” Reagent The limiting reagent is the reactant you run out of first.The excess reagent is the one you have left over.The limiting reagent determines how much product you can makeThe limiting reactant determines how much of the excess reactant is used
2How do you find out which is limited? Do two stoichiometry problems.The one that makes the least amount of product is the limiting reagent.
3If 10. 6 g of copper reacts with 3 If 10.6 g of copper reacts with 3.83 g sulfur, how many grams of product (copper (I) sulfide) will be formed?2Cu + S ® Cu2SCu is Limiting Reagent1 mol Cu1 mol Cu2Sg Cu2S10.6 g Cu63.55g Cu2 mol Cu1 mol Cu2S= 13.3 g Cu2S= 13.3 g Cu2S1 mol S1 mol Cu2Sg Cu2S3.83 g S32.06g S1 mol S1 mol Cu2S= 19.0 g Cu2S
4How much excess reagent will remain? Another example:If 10.3 g of aluminum are reacted with 51.7 g of CuSO4 how much copper (grams) will be produced?How much excess reagent will remain?Hint: Use the REACTANT you determined to be the LR and solve for grams of the other reactantThen subtract this answer from the grams of excess reactant given in the problem
6What is Yield? The amount of product made in a chemical reaction. There are three types:1. Actual yield- what you get in the lab when the chemicals are mixed2. Theoretical yield- what the balanced equation tells should be made3. Percent yield = Actual Theoreticalx 100
7Example:6.78 g of copper is produced when 3.92 g of Al are reacted with excess copper (II) sulfate.2Al + 3 CuSO4 ® Al2(SO4)3 + 3CuWhat is the actual yield? (from the problem)What is the theoretical yield? (Use grams of Al to determine grams of Cu)What is the percent yield?
8Percent yield tells us how “efficient” a reaction is. Details on Yield:Percent yield tells us how “efficient” a reaction is.Percent yield can not be bigger than 100 %.Theoretical yield will always be larger than actual yield!Due to impure reactants; competing side reactions; loss of product in filtering or transferring between containers; measuring
9ExampleLead nitrate can be decomposed by heating. What is the percent yield of the decomposition reaction if 9.9g Pb(NO3)2 is heated to give 5.5g PbO2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)In a decomposition reaction, you don’t have a limiting reactant.