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Chapter 3 Stoichiometry AP*

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AP Learning Objectives LO 1.2: The student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures. (Sec 3.7) LO 1.3: The student is able to select and apply mathematical relationships to mass data in order to justify a claim regarding the identity and/or estimated purity of a substance. (Sec 3.6) LO 1.4: The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively. (Sec ) LO 1.14: The student is able to use data from mass spectrometry to identify the elements and the masses of individual atoms of a specific element. (Sec 3.2) LO 1.17: The student is able to express the law of conservation of mass quantitatively and qualitatively using symbolic representations and particular drawings. (Sec ) LO 1.18: The student is able to apply conservation of atoms to the rearrangements of atoms in various processes. (Sec )

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AP Learning Objectives LO 1.19: The student can design, and/or interpret data from, an experiment that uses gravimetric analysis to determine the concentration of an analyte in a solution. (Sec 3.10) LO 3.1: Students can translate among macroscopic observations of change, chemical equations and particle views. (Sec 3.8) LO 3.3: The student is able to use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the expected results. (Sec 3.11) LO 3.4: The student is able to relate quantities (measured mass of substances, volumes of solutions, or volumes and pressures of gases) to identify stoichiometric relationships for a reaction, including situations involving limiting reactants and situations in which the reaction has not gone to completion. (Sec 3.11) LO 3.6: The student is able to use data from synthesis or decomposition of a compound to confirm the conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions. (Sec 3.7)

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Chapter 3 Chemical Stoichiometry Stoichiometry – The study of quantities of materials consumed and produced in chemical reactions. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 4

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Section 3.1 Counting by Weighing Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 5 Objects behave as though they were all identical. Atoms are too small to count. Need average mass of the object.

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Section 3.1 Counting by Weighing Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 6 A pile of marbles weigh g. 10 marbles weigh g. How many marbles are in the pile? EXERCISE!

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.14: The student is able to use data from mass spectrometry to identify the elements and the masses of individual atoms of a specific element.

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses 12 C is the standard for atomic mass, with a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass units (u). The masses of all other atoms are given relative to this standard. Elements occur in nature as mixtures of isotopes. Carbon = 98.89% 12 C 1.11% 13 C < 0.01% 14 C Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 8

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses Average Atomic Mass for Carbon 98.89% of 12 u % of u = Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 9 (0.9889)(12 u) + (0.0111)( u) = u exact number

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses Average Atomic Mass for Carbon Even though natural carbon does not contain a single atom with mass 12.01, for stoichiometric purposes, we can consider carbon to be composed of only one type of atom with a mass of This enables us to count atoms of natural carbon by weighing a sample of carbon. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 10

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses Schematic Diagram of a Mass Spectrometer Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 11

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Section 3.2 Atomic Masses An element consists of 62.60% of an isotope with mass u and 37.40% of an isotope with mass u. Calculate the average atomic mass and identify the element u Rhenium (Re) Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 12 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.3 The Mole AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.4: The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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Section 3.3 The Mole The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure 12 C. 1 mole of something consists of × units of that substance (Avogadro’s number). 1 mole C = × C atoms = g C Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 14

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Section 3.3 The Mole Calculate the number of iron atoms in a 4.48 mole sample of iron. 2.70×10 24 Fe atoms Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 15 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.4: The student is able to connect the number of particles, moles, mass, and volume of substances to one another, both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Mass in grams of one mole of the substance: Molar Mass of N = g/mol Molar Mass of H 2 O = g/mol (2 × g) g Molar Mass of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 = g/mol g + (2 × g) + (6 × g) Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 17

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Which of the following is closest to the average mass of one atom of copper? a) g b) g c) g d) g e) x g Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 18 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Calculate the number of copper atoms in a g sample of copper ×10 23 Cu atoms Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 19 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Which of the following g samples contains the greatest number of atoms? a) Magnesium b) Zinc c) Silver Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 20 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Rank the following according to number of atoms (greatest to least): a) g of silver b) 70.0 g of zinc c) 21.0 g of magnesium b) a) c) Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 21 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.4 Molar Mass Consider separate gram samples of each of the following: H 2 O, N 2 O, C 3 H 6 O 2, CO 2 Rank them from greatest to least number of oxygen atoms. H 2 O, CO 2, C 3 H 6 O 2, N 2 O Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 22 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.5 Learning to Solve Problems Conceptual Problem Solving Where are we going? Read the problem and decide on the final goal. How do we get there? Work backwards from the final goal to decide where to start. Reality check. Does my answer make sense? Is it reasonable? Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 23

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Section 3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.3: The student is able to select and apply mathematical relationships to mass data in order to justify a claim regarding the identity and/or estimated purity of a substance.

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Section 3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds Mass percent of an element: For iron in iron(III) oxide, (Fe 2 O 3 ): Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 25

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Section 3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds Consider separate gram samples of each of the following: H 2 O, N 2 O, C 3 H 6 O 2, CO 2 Rank them from highest to lowest percent oxygen by mass. H 2 O, CO 2, C 3 H 6 O 2, N 2 O Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 26 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.2: The student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures. Additional AP References LO 3.6 (see APEC Lab 7, " Hydrates and Thermal Decomposition")

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Section 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound Formulas Empirical formula = CH Simplest whole-number ratio Molecular formula = (empirical formula) n [n = integer] Molecular formula = C 6 H 6 = (CH) 6 Actual formula of the compound Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 28

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Section 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound Analyzing for Carbon and Hydrogen Device used to determine the mass percent of each element in a compound. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 29

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Section 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound The composition of adipic acid is 49.3% C, 6.9% H, and 43.8% O (by mass). The molar mass of the compound is about 146 g/mol. What is the empirical formula? C3H5O2C3H5O2 What is the molecular formula? C 6 H 10 O 4 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 30 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 31 A representation of a chemical reaction: C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O reactantsproducts Reactants are only placed on the left side of the arrow, products are only placed on the right side of the arrow.

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Section 3.8 Chemical Equations AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.18: The student is able to apply conservation of atoms to the rearrangements of atoms in various processes. LO 3.1: Students can translate among macroscopic observations of change, chemical equations and particle views.

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Section 3.8 Chemical Equations Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 33 C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O The equation is balanced. All atoms present in the reactants are accounted for in the products. 1 mole of ethanol reacts with 3 moles of oxygen to produce 2 moles of carbon dioxide and 3 moles of water.

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Section 3.8 Chemical Equations The balanced equation represents an overall ratio of reactants and products, not what actually “happens” during a reaction. Use the coefficients in the balanced equation to decide the amount of each reactant that is used, and the amount of each product that is formed. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 34

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.17: The student is able to express the law of conservation of mass quantitatively and qualitatively using symbolic representations and particular drawings. LO 1.18: The student is able to apply conservation of atoms to the rearrangements of atoms in various processes.

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations Writing and Balancing the Equation for a Chemical Reaction 1.Determine what reaction is occurring. What are the reactants, the products, and the physical states involved? 2.Write the unbalanced equation that summarizes the reaction described in step 1. 3.Balance the equation by inspection, starting with the most complicated molecule(s). The same number of each type of atom needs to appear on both reactant and product sides. Do NOT change the formulas of any of the reactants or products. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 36

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 37 To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations Which of the following correctly balances the chemical equation given below? There may be more than one correct balanced equation. If a balanced equation is incorrect, explain what is incorrect about it. CaO + C CaC 2 + CO 2 I. CaO 2 + 3C CaC 2 + CO 2 II. 2CaO + 5C 2CaC 2 + CO 2 III. CaO + (2.5)C CaC 2 + (0.5)CO 2 IV. 4CaO + 10C 4CaC 2 + 2CO 2 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved EXERCISE!

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations Which of the following are true concerning balanced chemical equations? There may be more than one true statement. I.The number of molecules is conserved. II.The coefficients tell you how much of each substance you have. III.Atoms are neither created nor destroyed. IV.The coefficients indicate the mass ratios of the substances used. V.The sum of the coefficients on the reactant side equals the sum of the coefficients on the product side. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 39 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations Notice The number of atoms of each type of element must be the same on both sides of a balanced equation. Subscripts must not be changed to balance an equation. A balanced equation tells us the ratio of the number of molecules which react and are produced in a chemical reaction. Coefficients can be fractions, although they are usually given as lowest integer multiples. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 40

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.17 The student is able to express the law of conservation of mass quantitatively and qualitatively using symbolic representations and particulate drawings. Additional AP References LO 1.19 (see APEC #3, “Gravimetric Analysis of a Sulfate Mixture”)

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Stoichiometric Calculations Chemical equations can be used to relate the masses of reacting chemicals. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 42

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Calculating Masses of Reactants and Products in Reactions 1.Balance the equation for the reaction. 2.Convert the known mass of the reactant or product to moles of that substance. 3.Use the balanced equation to set up the appropriate mole ratios. 4.Use the appropriate mole ratios to calculate the number of moles of the desired reactant or product. 5.Convert from moles back to grams if required by the problem. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 43

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Calculating Masses of Reactants and Products in Reactions Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 44

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Consider the following reaction: If 6.25 g of phosphorus is burned, what mass of oxygen does it combine with? 8.07 g O 2 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 45 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Methane (CH 4 ) reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide and water. Ammonia (NH 3 ) reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce nitrogen monoxide and water. Write balanced equations for each of these reactions. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 46 (Part I) EXERCISE!

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Methane (CH 4 ) reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce carbon dioxide and water. Ammonia (NH 3 ) reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce nitrogen monoxide and water. What mass of ammonia would produce the same amount of water as 1.00 g of methane reacting with excess oxygen? Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 47 (Part II) EXERCISE!

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Section 3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products Let’s Think About It Where are we going? To find the mass of ammonia that would produce the same amount of water as 1.00 g of methane reacting with excess oxygen. How do we get there? We need to know: How much water is produced from 1.00 g of methane and excess oxygen. How much ammonia is needed to produce the amount of water calculated above. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 48

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant AP Learning Objectives, Margin Notes and References Learning Objectives LO 1.17 The student is able to express the law of conservation of mass quantitatively and qualitatively using symbolic representations and particulate drawings. LO 3.3: The student is able to use stoichiometric calculations to predict the results of performing a reaction in the laboratory and/or to analyze deviations from the expected results. LO 3.4: The student is able to relate quantities (measured mass of substances, volumes of solutions, or volumes and pressures of gases) to identify stoichiometric relationships for a reaction, including situations involving limiting reactants and situations in which the reaction has not gone to completion.

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Limiting Reactants Limiting reactant – the reactant that runs out first and thus limits the amounts of products that can be formed. Determine which reactant is limiting to calculate correctly the amounts of products that will be formed. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 50

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Limiting Reactants Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 51 To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant A. The Concept of Limiting Reactants Stoichiometric mixture N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Limiting reactant mixture A. The Concept of Limiting Reactants N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Limiting reactant mixture N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Limiting reactant is the reactant that runs out first. H 2 A. The Concept of Limiting Reactants

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Limiting Reactants The amount of products that can form is limited by the hydrogen. Hydrogen is the limiting reactant. Nitrogen is in excess. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 55

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Which of the following reaction mixtures could produce the greatest amount of product? Each involves the reaction symbolized by the equation: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O a)2 moles of H 2 and 2 moles of O 2 b)2 moles of H 2 and 3 moles of O 2 c)2 moles of H 2 and 1 mole of O 2 d)3 moles of H 2 and 1 mole of O 2 e)Each produce the same amount of product. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 56 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Notice We cannot simply add the total moles of all the reactants to decide which reactant mixture makes the most product. We must always think about how much product can be formed by using what we are given, and the ratio in the balanced equation. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 57

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant You know that chemical A reacts with chemical B. You react 10.0 g of A with 10.0 g of B. What information do you need to know in order to determine the mass of product that will be produced? Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 58 CONCEPT CHECK!

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Let’s Think About It Where are we going? To determine the mass of product that will be produced when you react 10.0 g of A with 10.0 g of B. How do we get there? We need to know: The mole ratio between A, B, and the product they form. In other words, we need to know the balanced reaction equation. The molar masses of A, B, and the product they form. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 59

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant You react 10.0 g of A with 10.0 g of B. What mass of product will be produced given that the molar mass of A is 10.0 g/mol, B is 20.0 g/mol, and C is 25.0 g/mol? They react according to the equation: A + 3B 2C Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 60 EXERCISE!

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Percent Yield An important indicator of the efficiency of a particular laboratory or industrial reaction. Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 61

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Section 3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant Consider the following reaction: P 4 (s) + 6F 2 (g) 4PF 3 (g) What mass of P 4 is needed to produce 85.0 g of PF 3 if the reaction has a 64.9% yield? 46.1 g P 4 Copyright © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 62 EXERCISE!

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