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Chemistry 12.3 “Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield”

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1 Chemistry 12.3 “Limiting Reagent and Percent Yield”

2 I. Limiting / Excess Reactants A. Limiting Reactant 1. Def – the substance you run out of in a reaction. a. “It is limiting” B. Excess Reactant 1. Def – the substance that has extra/leftover in a reaction. a. “It is in abundance”

3 C. Ex: N 2 + 3H 2  2NH 3 -if I have 3 moles of N 2 and 8 moles of H 2, which will be my limiting reactant? -what will be my excess reactant? H2H2 N2N2

4 D. Question: Sodium chloride can be prepared by the reaction of sodium metal with chlorine gas. 2 Na + Cl 2  2 NaCl Suppose the 6.7 mol Na reacts with 3.2 mol of Cl 2. What is the limiting reactant? How much salt can be made? GivenMole Ratio Amount Produced

5 6.7 mol Na x 1 mol Cl 2 2 mol Na = 3.35 mol Cl 2 How much chlorine do we have? 3.2 mol Cl 2 Limiting Reactant = Excess Reactant = How much salt? = chlorine sodium 6.40 mol NaCl

6 In Class Assignment Copper plus sulfur produce copper (I) sulfide. a. What is the limiting reactant when 80.0 g of Cu (I) react with 25.0 g of sulfur? b. What is the total amount in grams of copper (I) sulfide that can be made? a. Limiting reactant = Copper b. Amount produced = 100. grams of Cu 2 S

7 II. Percent Yield A. Calculating Percent Yield 1. Formula Percent Yield = 2. parts… a. Theoretical yield = maximum product that could be made. Comes from the chemical formula. b. Actual yield = the amount of product that is made in a chemical reaction. c. Can never be more than 100% actual yield Theoretical yield X 100

8 -why less than 100%? 1. impure reactants 2. side reactions 3. loss of products (transferring between containers)

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