Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Understanding Chemical Reactions Lesson 2Lesson 2Types of Chemical Reactions Lesson 3Lesson 3Energy.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Understanding Chemical Reactions Lesson 2Lesson 2Types of Chemical Reactions Lesson 3Lesson 3Energy."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Understanding Chemical Reactions Lesson 2Lesson 2Types of Chemical Reactions Lesson 3Lesson 3Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions Chapter Wrap-Up

3 Chapter Introduction What happens to atoms and energy during a chemical reaction?

4 Chapter Introduction What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

5 Chapter Introduction 1.If a substance bubbles, you know a chemical reaction is occurring. 2.During a chemical reaction, some atoms are destroyed and new atoms are made. 3.Reactions always start with two or more substances that react with each other. Do you agree or disagree?

6 Chapter Introduction 4.Water can be broken down into simpler substances. 5.Reactions that release energy require energy to get started. 6.Energy can be created in a chemical reaction. Do you agree or disagree?

7 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC What are some signs that a chemical reaction might have occurred? What happens to atoms during a chemical reaction? What happens to the total mass in a chemical reaction? Understanding Chemical Reactions

8 Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab chemical reaction chemical equation reactant product Understanding Chemical Reactions law of conservation of masslaw of conservation of mass coefficient

9 Lesson 1-1 A physical change does not produce new substances. For example, water molecules are always made up of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom regardless of whether they are solid, liquid, or gas. Changes in Matter

10 Lesson 1-1 During a chemical change, one or more substances change into new substances. A chemical reaction is a process in which atoms of one or more substances rearrange to form one or more new substances.chemical reaction Changes in Matter (cont.)

11 Lesson 1-2 Changes in the physical properties of color, state of matter, and odor are all signs that a chemical reaction might have occurred. If substances get warmer or cooler or if they give off light or sound, it is likely that a chemical reaction has occurred. Signs of a Chemical Reaction

12 Lesson 1-2 The only way to know if a chemical reaction has occurred is to study the chemical properties of the substances before and after the change. Signs of a Chemical Reaction (cont.) What are some signs that a chemical reaction might have occurred?

13 Lesson 1-3 In a chemical reaction, atoms of elements or compounds rearrange and form different elements or compounds. Atoms rearrange when chemical bonds between atoms break. What happens in a chemical reaction?

14 Lesson 1-3 Notice that no new atoms are created in a chemical reaction. The existing atoms rearrange and form new substances.

15 Lesson 1-3 What happens in a chemical reaction? (cont.) What happens to atoms during a chemical reaction?

16 Lesson 1-4 A chemical equation is a description of a reaction using element symbols and chemical formulas.chemical equation In chemical equations, element symbols represent elements and chemical formulas represent compounds. Chemical Equations

17 Lesson 1-4 A subscript describes the number of atoms of an element in a compound. If an element’s symbol does not have a subscript, the compound contains only one atom of that element. Chemical Equations (cont.)

18 Lesson 1-4

19 A chemical equation includes both the substances that react and the substances that are formed in a chemical reaction. The starting substances in a chemical reaction are reactants.reactants The substances produced by the chemical reaction are products.products Chemical Equations (cont.)

20 Lesson 1-5 product from Latin producere, means “bring forth” Chemical Equations (cont.)

21 Lesson 1-4 The reactants are written to the left of the arrow. The products are written to the right of the arrow. The general structure for a chemical equation is: reactant + reactant product + product Chemical Equations (cont.)

22 Lesson 1-4 An equation is read much like a sentence. This equation is read as “carbon plus oxygen produces carbon dioxide.”

23 Lesson 1-5 The law of conservation of mass states that the total mass of the reactants before a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of the products after the chemical reaction.law of conservation of mass Mass is conserved in a reaction because atoms are conserved. All atoms at the start of a chemical reaction are present at the end of the reaction. Conservation of Mass

24 Lesson 1-5 Mass is conserved in the reaction between baking soda and vinegar. Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

25 Lesson 1-5 Conservation of Mass (cont.) What happens to the total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction?

26 Lesson 1-5 A chemical equation is written so that the number of atoms of each element is the same, or balanced, on each side of the arrow. Conservation of Mass (cont.)

27 Lesson 1-5 A balanced equation often does not happen automatically when the formulas for reactants and products are written. Conservation of Mass (cont.)

28 Lesson 1-5 A coefficient is a number placed in front of an element symbol or chemical formula in an equation.coefficient Only coefficients can be changed when balancing an equation. Conservation of Mass (cont.)

29 Lesson 1-5 Changing subscripts changes the identities of the substances that are in the reaction. When no coefficient is present, only one unit of the substance takes part in the reaction. Conservation of Mass (cont.)

30 Lesson 1-6

31

32 Lesson 1 - VS A chemical reaction is a process in which bonds break and atoms rearrange, forming new bonds.

33 Lesson 1 - VS A chemical equation uses symbols to show reactants and products of a chemical reaction.

34 Lesson 1 - VS The mass and the number of each type of atom do not change during a chemical reaction. This is the law of conservation of mass.

35 Lesson 1 – LR1 Which term refers to a description of a reaction using element symbols and chemical formulas? A.chemical equation B.chemical reaction C.coefficient D.subscript

36 Lesson 1 – LR2 A.reactants B.products C.element D.coefficient What are substances produced by a chemical reaction called?

37 Lesson 1 – LR3 A.substances B.products C.coefficients D.atoms What is conserved when mass is conserved in a reaction?

38 Lesson 1 - Now 1.If a substance bubbles, you know a chemical reaction is occurring. 2.During a chemical reaction, some atoms are destroyed and new atoms are made. Do you agree or disagree?

39 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC How can you recognize the type of chemical reaction by the number or type of reactants and products? What are the different types of chemical reactions? Types of Chemical Reactions

40 Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab synthesis decomposition single replacement double replacement combustion Types of Chemical Reactions

41 Lesson 2-1 The breakdown of one reactant into two or more products is one of four major types of chemical reactions. Each type of chemical reaction follows a unique pattern in the way atoms in reactants rearrange to form products. Patterns in Reactions

42 Lesson 2-2 A synthesis is a type of chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine and form one compound.synthesis Types of Chemical Reactions

43 Lesson 2-2 synthesis from Greek syn–, means “together”; and tithenai, means “put” Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.)

44 Lesson 2-2 In a decomposition reaction, one compound breaks down and forms two or more substances.decomposition Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.)

45 Lesson 2-2 Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) How can you tell the difference between synthesis and decomposition reactions?

46 Lesson 2-2 In a single-replacement reaction, one element replaces another element in a compound.single-replacement Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.)

47 Lesson 2-2 In a double-replacement reaction, the negative ions in two compounds switch places, forming two new compounds.double-replacement Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.)

48 Lesson 2-2 CombustionCombustion is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with oxygen and releases energy. Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.)

49 Lesson 2-2 Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) What are the different types of chemical reactions?

50 Lesson 2 - VS Chemical reactions are classified according to patterns seen in their reactants and products.

51 Lesson 2 - VS In a synthesis reaction, there are two or more reactants and one product. A decomposition reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction.

52 Lesson 2 - VS In replacement reactions, an element, or elements, in a compound is replaced with another element or elements.

53 Lesson 2 – LR1 A.single-replacement B.double-replacement C.combustion D.synthesis What term describes a type of chemical reaction in which two or more substances combine and form one compound?

54 Lesson 2 – LR2 A.synthesis B.combustion C.single-replacement D.double-replacement In which type of chemical reaction does a substance combine with oxygen and release energy?

55 Lesson 2 – LR3 A.double-replacement B.single-replacement C.decomposition D.synthesis Which term refers to a chemical reaction in which the negative ions in two compounds switch places, forming two new compounds?

56 Lesson 2 - Now 3.Reactions always start with two or more substances that react with each other. 4.Water can be broken down into simpler substances. Do you agree or disagree?

57 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC Why do chemical reactions always involve a change in energy? What is the difference between an endothermic reaction and an exothermic reaction? What factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction? Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions

58 Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab endothermic exothermic activation energyactivation energy Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions catalyst enzyme inhibitor

59 Lesson 3-1 Chemical bonds contain a form of energy called chemical energy. Breaking a bond absorbs energy from the surroundings. The formation of a chemical bond releases energy to the surroundings. Energy Changes

60 Lesson 3-1 Some chemical reactions release more energy than they absorb. Some chemical reactions absorb more energy than they release. Energy is conserved in all chemical reactions. Energy Changes (cont.)

61 Lesson 3-1 Energy Changes (cont.) Why do chemical reactions involve a change in energy?

62 Lesson 3-1 Chemical reactions that absorb thermal energy are endothermic reactions.endothermic reactions In an endothermic reaction, more energy is required to break the bonds of the reactants than is released when the products form.

63 Lesson 3-1 An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases thermal energy.exothermic reaction In an exothermic reaction, more energy is released when the products form than is required to break the bonds in the reactants.

64 Lesson 3-1 Energy Changes (cont.) exothermic from Greek exo–, means “outside”; and therm, means “heat”

65 Lesson 3-1 Energy Changes (cont.) What is the difference between an endothermic reaction and an exothermic reaction?

66 Lesson 3-1 Activation energyActivation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction.

67 Lesson 3-2 The rate of a reaction is the speed at which it occurs. Chemical reactions occur faster if particles collide more often or move faster when they collide. Reaction Rates

68 Lesson 3-2 Increased surface area increases reaction rate because more particles on the surface of a solid come into contact with the particles of another substance. At higher temperatures, the average speed of particles is greater, particles collide more often, and collisions with more energy are more likely to break chemical bonds. Reaction Rates (cont.)

69 Lesson 3-2 Increasing the concentration of one or more reactants increases collisions between particles, resulting in a fast reaction rate. In gases, an increase in pressure pushes gas particles closer together, resulting in more collisions. Reaction Rates (cont.)

70 Lesson 3-2 A catalyst is a substance that increases reaction rate by lowering the activation energy of a reaction.catalyst An enzyme is a catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in living cells. enzyme

71 Lesson 3-2 An inhibitor is a substance that slows, or even stops, a chemical reaction.inhibitor Reaction Rates (cont.) What factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction?

72 Lesson 3 - VS Chemical reactions that release energy are exothermic, and those that absorb energy are endothermic.

73 Lesson 3 - VS Activation energy must be added to a chemical reaction for it to proceed.

74 Lesson 3 - VS Catalysts, including enzymes, speed up chemical reactions. Inhibitors slow them down.

75 Lesson 3 – LR1 A.activation energy B.catalyst C.inhibitor D.reactant What term refers to the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction?

76 Lesson 3 – LR2 A.reactant B.inhibitor C.enzyme D.catalyst What is the name for a substance that slows, or even stops a chemical reaction?

77 Lesson 3 – LR3 A.endothermic B.exothermic C.single-replacement D.double-replacement In which type of reaction is more energy released when the products form than is required to break the bonds in the reactants?

78 Lesson 3 - Now 5.Reactions that release energy require energy to get started. 6.Energy can be created in a chemical reaction. Do you agree or disagree?

79 Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice

80 The BIG Idea Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. Energy can be released when chemical bonds form or absorbed when chemical bonds are broken.

81 Key Concepts 1 There are several signs that a chemical reaction might have occurred, including a change in temperature, a release of light, a release of gas, a change in color or odor, and the formation of a solid from two liquids. In a chemical reaction, atoms of reactants rearrange and form products. The total mass of all the reactants is equal to the total mass of all the products in a reaction. Lesson 1: Understanding Chemical Reactions

82 Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Types of Chemical Reactions Most chemical reactions fit into one of a few main categories—synthesis, decomposition, combustion, and single- or double-replacement. Synthesis reactions create one product. Decomposition reactions start with one reactant. Single- and double-replacement reaction involve replacing one element or group of atoms with another element or group of atoms. Combustion reactions involve a reaction between one reactant and oxygen, and they release thermal energy.

83 Key Concepts 3 Lesson 3: Energy Changes and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions always involve breaking bonds, which requires energy, and forming bonds, which releases energy. In an endothermic reaction, the reactants contain less energy than the products. In an exothermic reaction, the reactants contain more energy than the products. The rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by increasing the surface area, the temperature, or the concentration of the reactants or by adding a catalyst.

84 Chapter Review – MC1 A.subscript B.reactant C.product D.coefficient Which term refers to a number placed in front of an element symbol or chemical formula in an equation?

85 Chapter Review – MC2 A.reactants B.products C.elements D.atoms Which term refers to the substances produced by a chemical reaction?

86 Chapter Review – MC3 A.coefficients B.elements C.subscripts D.superscripts What can be changed when balancing a chemical equation?

87 Chapter Review – MC4 A.combustion B.decomposition C.synthesis D.double-replacement In what type of chemical reaction does one compound break down and form two or more substances?

88 Chapter Review – MC5 A.endothermic B.exothermic C.double-replacement D.single-replacement Which term refers to the type of chemical reaction that absorbs thermal energy?

89 Chapter Review – STP1 A.chemical equation B.chemical reaction C.combustion D.coefficient Which term refers to a process in which atoms of one or more substances rearrange to form one or more new substances?

90 Chapter Review – STP2 A.atoms B.ions C.products D.reactants Which rearranges when chemical bonds between atoms break?

91 Chapter Review – STP3 A.single-replacement B.double-replacement C.synthesis D.combustion In which type of chemical reaction does one element replace another element in a compound?

92 Chapter Review – STP4 A.catalyst B.enzyme C.inhibitor D.product Which term refers to a substance that increases reaction rate by lowering the activation energy of a reaction?

93 Chapter Review – STP5 A.enzyme B.inhibitor C.particle D.reactant Which describes a catalyst that speeds up chemical reactions in living cells?


Download ppt "Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Understanding Chemical Reactions Lesson 2Lesson 2Types of Chemical Reactions Lesson 3Lesson 3Energy."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google