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Nature of Chemical Reactions

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1 Nature of Chemical Reactions
Section 5.1 Nature of Chemical Reactions

2 Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions
Chapter Preview: 5.1 The Nature of Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions Change Substances Energy and Reactions 5.2 Reaction Types Classifying Reactions Electrons and Chemical Reactions 5.3 Balancing Chemical Equations Describing Reaction Determining Mole Ratios 5.4 Rates of Change Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Equilibrium Systems

3 Section 5.1 The Nature of Chemical Reactions
Objectives: Recognize some signs that a chemical reaction is taking place. Explain chemical changes in terms of the structure and motion of atoms and molecules. Describe the differences between endothermic and exothermic reactions. Identify situations involving chemical energy.

4 Chemical Reactions Change Substance
A chemical change can be describe by using words like grow, ripen, decay, and burn. All chemical reactions change substance.

5 Chemical reactions occur when substances undergo chemical change to form new substance.
Production of gas and change of color are signs of chemical reactions.

6 A closer microscopic look at chemical reactions:
Chemical reaction rearrange atoms which are the reactants and products and require energy in order to break the bonds. Reactant is the substance that undergoes a chemical change Product is the result of the chemical change. Parts of a chemical reactions:

7 Energy is conserved in chemical reactions
Chemical energy: the energy stored within atoms and molecules that can be released when a substance reacts.

8 Energy: the ability to do work
Forming bonds releases energy. When new bonds form, energy is released.

9 Exothermic Reaction (rxn)
Transfer of energy from reactants to its surroundings usually as heat. Ex. Sun The temperature of the surroundings rises.

10 Endothermic Reaction (rxn)
Transfer of energy to reactants from surroundings as heat Ex. Photosynthesis

11 Types of chemical reactions:
Bioluminescence and respiration are exergonic reactions. Photosynthesis is an endergonic recection.

12 Section 5.1 Summary During a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged.
Signs of a chemical reaction include any of the following: a substance that has different properties than the reactants have; a color change; the formation of a gas or a solid precipitate; or the transfer to energy. Mass and energy are conserved in chemical reactions. Chemical energy can be given off or taken in. Energy must be added to the reactants for bonds between atoms to be broken.

13 Section 5.2 Reaction Types
Objectives Distinguish among five general types of chemical reactions. Predict the products of some reactions based on the reaction type. Describe reactions that transfer or share electrons between molecules, atoms, or ions.

14 Classifying reaction: even though there are millions of unique substances and many millions of possible reactions, there are only a few general types of reactions. There are 6 general reactions that are responsible for the millions different types of substances. Synthesis reaction: a reaction of at least two substances that forms a new, more complex compound. Synthesis reactions have the following general form: A + B AB For example: Na + Cl NaCl Examples: photosynthesis , polyethylene and table salt.

15 AB A + B For example; H2O H2 + O2
Decomposition reactions: a reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products. The general form for decomposition reactions is as follows: AB A + B For example; H2O H2 + O2 Note: This type of reaction can be reversed by a process known as electrolysis Electrolysis: the decomposition of a compound by an electric current.

16 CxHy + O2 H2O + CO2 + heat and light
Combustion reaction: a reaction in which a compound and oxygen burn. The general form for combustion reactions is as follows: CxHy + O2 H2O + CO2 + heat and light Note: combustion reactions use oxygen as a reactant.

17 XA + B BA + X For example; CuCl2 + Al AlCl3 + Cu
In single-displacement reactions, elements trade places: Single-displacement reactions are define as a reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of anther element in a compound. Single-displacement reactions have the following general form: XA + B BA + X For example; CuCl2 + Al AlCl3 + Cu Generally, in a single-displacement reaction, a more reactive element will take the place of a less reactive one.

18 Pb(NO3)2 + K2CrO4 PbCrO4 + KNO3
Double-displacement reaction: a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound is formed from the apparent exchange of ions between two compounds. Double-displacement reactions have the following general form: AX + BY AY + BX For Example: Pb(NO3)2 + K2CrO4 PbCrO4 + KNO3

19 Electrons and Chemical Reactions
With the discovery of the electron and its role in chemical bonding, another way to classify reactions was developed. We can understand many reactions as transfers of electrons. Reduction/oxidation (redox) reaction: a reaction that occurs when electrons are transferred from one reactant to another. Radicals: the fragments of molecules that have at least one electron available for bonding. Oil Rig: Oxidation Is Loss Of Electron. Reduction Is Gain Of

20 Section 5.3 Balancing Chemical Equations
Objectives Demonstrate how to balance chemical equations. Interpret chemical equations to determine the relative number of moles of reactants needed and moles of product is formed. Explain how the law of definite proportions allows for predictions about reaction amounts. Identify mole ratios in a balanced chemical equations. Calculate the relative masses of reactants and products from a chemical equation.

21 Describing Reactions:
Chemical equations summarize reactions. Chemical equation: an equation that uses chemical formulas and symbols to show the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Balanced chemical equations account for the conservation of mass.

22 How to balance chemical equations:
An equation can be balanced only by putting numbers, called coefficients, in front of the chemical formulas. Note: never add or change a subscript doing so is violating the law of conservation of mass.

23 Balanced equations indicate particles and moles.
Information from a balanced equation is a way that chemists write about reactions to describe both the substances in the reaction and the amounts involved. Balanced equations indicate particles and moles. Balanced equations show the conservation of mass. The law of definite proportions: A compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions, regardless of how the compound is made or h0w much of the compound is formed. Note: Mole rations can be derived from balanced equations.

24 Chapter 5 Summary Report
A chemical equation shows the reactants that combine and the products that results from the reaction. Balanced chemical equations show the proportions of reactants and products needed for the mass to be conserved. A compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions, regardless of how the compound is made or how much of the compounds is formed. A mole ratio relates the amounts of any two or more substances involved in a chemical reactions.

25 Section 5.4 Rates of Change
Objectives: Describe the factors affecting reaction rates. Explain the effect a catalyst has on a chemical reaction. Explain chemical equilibrium in terms of equal forward and reverse reaction rates. Apply Le chatelier’s principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, and pressure in an equilibrium process.

26 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates:
Most reactions go faster at higher temperature. A large surface area speeds up reactions. Concentrated solutions react faster.

27 Reactions are quicker at higher pressure.
Massive, bulky molecules react slower.

28 Catalysts change the rates of chemical reactions.
Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up a specific reaction.

29 Substrate: the specific substance affected by an enzyme. For example:

30 Section 5.4 Summary Report
Increasing the temperature, surface area, concentration, or pressure of reactants may speed up chemical reactions. Catalysts alter the rate of chemical reactions. Most catalysts speed up chemical reactions. Others, called inhibitors, slow reactions down. In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is achieved when reactants change to products and products change to reactants at the same time. At chemical equilibrium, no changes are apparent even though individual particles are reacting. Le Chatelier’s principle states that for any change made to a system in equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift to minimize the effects of the change.

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