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Enzymes Biological catalysts Increase rate of reactions

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Presentation on theme: "Enzymes Biological catalysts Increase rate of reactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enzymes Biological catalysts Increase rate of reactions
by lowering activation energy (EA) Spontaneous reactions can take a long time! Need enzymes to speed reactions for cell survival

2 Activation Energy (EA)
Needed to destabilize bonds of reactants

3 Could raise temp. to break bonds A B C D Transition state A B EA
LE 8-14 A B C D Transition state Could raise temp. to break bonds A B EA Free energy C D Reactants A B DG < O C D Products Progress of the reaction

4 Why don’t cells rely on increases in temperature to break bonds?
Because proteins could be denatured causing cell damage.

5 Progress of the reaction
LE 8-15 Course of reaction without enzyme EA without enzyme EA with enzyme is lower Reactants Free energy Course of reaction with enzyme DG is unaffected by enzyme Products Progress of the reaction

6 LE 8-13 Example: Sucrose C12H22O11 Glucose C6H12O6 Fructose C6H12O6

7 Structure & Function of Enzyme DRAW
Enzymes bind substrate molecules (the reactant) Substrates bind to active site on enzyme Binding induces conformational change in enzyme--better ”fit” for substrate Active sites are highly specific and discriminatory i.e. sucrase does not accept lactose

8 LE 8-16 Substrate Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex

9 How does enzyme lower activation energy of reaction?
Orients substrates for optimal interaction Strains substrate bonds Provides a favorable microenvironment -May covalently bond to the substrate

10 LE 8-17 Substrates enter active site; enzyme changes shape so its active site embraces the substrates (induced fit). Substrates held in active site by weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds. Active site (and R groups of its amino acids) can lower EA and speed up a reaction by acting as a template for substrate orientation, stressing the substrates and stabilizing the transition state, providing a favorable microenvironment, participating directly in the catalytic reaction. Substrates Enzyme-substrate complex Active site is available for two new substrate molecules. Enzyme Products are released. Substrates are converted into products. Products

11 Environmental Conditions Affect Enzyme Function
? Temperature: cold-->decreased chance of bumping into substrate hot--> good chance of substrate interaction but chance of denaturation at some point pH->change in charge (H+ or OH-) can denature proteins and substrate Examples of pH sensitive enzymes?

12 What is your normal body temp.? LE 8-18 Optimal temperature for
typical human enzyme Optimal temperature for enzyme of thermophilic (heat-tolerant bacteria) What is your normal body temp.? Rate of reaction 20 40 60 80 100 Temperature (°C) Optimal temperature for two enzymes Optimal pH for pepsin (stomach enzyme) Optimal pH for trypsin (intestinal enzyme) Rate of reaction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 pH Optimal pH for two enzymes

13 Cofactors Non-protein enzyme helpers (like metal, Fe) Coenzymes
organic cofactors (con-enzyme A) Vitamins e.g. Vitamin K: required for blood clotting & Required in certain carboxylation reactions

14 Regulation of Enzymes Enzyme Inhibitors
Competitive inhibitor binds to active site of enzyme blocks substrate binding by competition Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to another part of enzyme causes enzyme to change shape prevents active site from binding substrate Allosteric effect DRAW

15 Example of allosteric effect
A substrate can bind normally to the active site of an enzyme. Substrate Active site Enzyme Normal binding A competitive inhibitor mimics the substrate, competing for the active site. Competitive inhibitor Competitive inhibition A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme away from the active site, altering the conformation of the enzyme so that its active site no longer functions. Example of allosteric effect Noncompetitive inhibitor Noncompetitive inhibition

16 Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
Where protein function at one site is affected by binding of a regulatory molecule at another site May inhibit or stimulate enzyme activity

17 Allosteric Activation and Inhibition
Most allosterically regulated enzymes are made from polypeptide subunits active and inactive forms binding of activator stabilizes active form of enzyme binding of inhibitor stabilizes inactive form of enzyme

18 Active site (one of four)
LE 8-20a Allosteric activator stabilizes active form. Allosteric enzyme with four subunits Active site (one of four) Regulatory site (one of four) Activator Active form Stabilized active form Oscillation Allosteric inhibitor stabilizes inactive form. Non- functional active site Inhibitor Inactive form Stabilized inactive form Allosteric activators and inhibitors

19 Binding of one substrate molecule to
LE 8-20b Binding of one substrate molecule to active site of one subunit locks all subunits in active conformation. Substrate Inactive form Stabilized active form Cooperativity another type of allosteric activation

20 Shift from regulation of one enzyme to
regulation of an enzymatic pathway

21 Feedback Inhibition End product of a metabolic pathway shuts down the pathway Prevents over-production of unneeded molecules

22 LE 8-21 Initial substrate (threonine) Active site available Threonine
in active site Enzyme 1 (threonine deaminase) Isoleucine used up by cell Intermediate A Feedback inhibition Enzyme 2 Active site of enzyme 1 can’t bind theonine pathway off Intermediate B Enzyme 3 Intermediate C Isoleucine binds to allosteric site Enzyme 4 Intermediate D Enzyme 5 End product (isoleucine)

23 Metabolic pathways are often localized in cell
Cellular structures organize and concentrate components of enzymatic pathways e.g. organelles (mitochondria, chloroplast, lysosomes) Pathways: respiration, photosynthesis, hydrolysis

24 sites of cellular respiration
LE 8-22 Mitochondria, sites of cellular respiration 1 µm

25 It’s nice to get so much attention!
LE 8-22 It’s nice to get so much attention!

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