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1 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 6th Edition John C. Kotz Paul M. Treichel Gabriela C. Weaver CHAPTER 4 Chemical Equations.

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Presentation on theme: "1 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 6th Edition John C. Kotz Paul M. Treichel Gabriela C. Weaver CHAPTER 4 Chemical Equations."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 6th Edition John C. Kotz Paul M. Treichel Gabriela C. Weaver CHAPTER 4 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry © 2006 Brooks/Cole Thomson Lectures written by John Kotz, Ph.D. Modified By: Rick Moleski, Ph.D.

3 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson STOICHIOMETRYSTOICHIOMETRY - the study of the quantitative aspects of chemical reactions.

4 3 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson STOICHIOMETRYSTOICHIOMETRY It rests on the principle of the conservation of matter. 2 Al(s) + 3 Br 2 (liq) > Al 2 Br 6 (s)

5 4 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson PROBLEM: If 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 decomposes, how much N 2 O and H 2 O are formed? What is the theoretical yield of products? STEP 1 Write the balanced chemical equation NH 4 NO 3 ---> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O

6 5 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 2 Convert mass reactant (454 g) --> moles STEP 3 Convert moles reactant (5.68 mol) --> moles product

7 6 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 3 Convert moles reactant --> moles product Relate moles NH 4 NO 3 to moles product expected. 1 mol NH 4 NO 3 --> 2 mol H 2 O Express this relation as the STOICHIOMETRIC FACTOR.

8 7 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O = 11.4 mol H 2 O produced STEP 3 Convert moles reactant (5.68 mol) --> moles product

9 8 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 4 Convert moles product (11.4 mol) --> mass product Called the THEORETICAL YIELD ALWAYS FOLLOW THESE STEPS IN SOLVING STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS!

10 9 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson GENERAL PLAN FOR STOICHIOMETRY CALCULATIONS Mass reactant Stoichiometric factor Moles reactant Moles product Mass product

11 10 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 5 How much N 2 O is formed? Total mass of reactants = total mass of products total mass of products 454 g NH 4 NO 3 = ___ g N 2 O g H 2 O mass of N 2 O = 250. g

12 11 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson CompoundNH 4 NO 3 N 2 OH 2 OCompoundNH 4 NO 3 N 2 OH 2 O Initial (g) Initial (mol) Change (mol) Final (mol) Final (g) 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O Amounts Table (page 125) Note that matter is conserved!

13 12 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson CompoundNH 4 NO 3 N 2 OH 2 OCompoundNH 4 NO 3 N 2 OH 2 O Initial (g)454 g00 Initial (mol)5.68 mol00 Change (mol) (5.68) Final (mol) Final (g) g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O Amounts Table (page 125) Note that matter is conserved!

14 13 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 6 Calculate the percent yield If you isolated only 131 g of N 2 O, what is the percent yield? This compares the theoretical (250. g) and actual (131 g) yields.

15 14 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 454 g of NH 4 NO 3 --> N 2 O + 2 H 2 O STEP 6 Calculate the percent yield

16 15 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson PROBLEM: Using 5.00 g of H 2 O 2, what mass of O 2 and of H 2 O can be obtained? 2 H 2 O 2 (liq) ---> 2 H 2 O(g) + O 2 (g) Reaction is catalyzed by MnO 2 Step 1: moles of H 2 O 2 Step 2: use STOICHIOMETRIC FACTOR to calculate moles of O 2 Step 3: mass of O 2

17 16 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Another Topic: Limiting Reactants

18 17 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Reactions Involving a LIMITING REACTANT In a given reaction, there is not enough of one reagent to use up the other reagent completely.In a given reaction, there is not enough of one reagent to use up the other reagent completely. The reagent in short supply LIMITS the quantity of product that can be formed.The reagent in short supply LIMITS the quantity of product that can be formed.

19 18 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson LIMITING REACTANTS eactants R eactantsProducts 2 NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) Limiting reactant = ___________ Excess reactant = ____________

20 19 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson LIMITING REACTANTS Demo of limiting reactants on Screen 4.7

21 20 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Rxn 1: Balloon inflates fully, some Zn left * More than enough Zn to use up the mol HCl Rxn 2: Balloon inflates fully, no Zn left * Right amount of each (HCl and Zn) Rxn 3: Balloon does not inflate fully, no Zn left. * Not enough Zn to use up mol HCl LIMITING REACTANTS React solid Zn with mol HCl (aq) Zn + 2 HCl ---> ZnCl 2 + H (See CD Screen 4.8)

22 21 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Rxn 1Rxn 2Rxn 3 Rxn 1Rxn 2Rxn 3 mass Zn (g) mol Zn mol HCl mol HCl/mol Zn0.93/12.00/15.00/1 Lim ReactantLR = HClno LRLR = Zn LIMITING REACTANTS React solid Zn with mol HCl (aq) Zn + 2 HCl ---> ZnCl 2 + H mol HCl [1 mol Zn/2 mol HCl] = mol Zn

23 22 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Reaction to be Studied 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6

24 23 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson PROBLEM: Mix 5.40 g of Al with 8.10 g of Cl 2. What mass of Al 2 Cl 6 can form? Mass reactant Stoichiometric factor Moles reactant Moles product Mass product

25 24 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Step 1 of LR problem: compare actual mole ratio of reactants to theoretical mole ratio.

26 25 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6 Reactants must be in the mole ratio Step 1 of LR problem: compare actual mole ratio of reactants to theoretical mole ratio.

27 26 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Deciding on the Limiting Reactant If There is not enough Al to use up all the Cl 2 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6 Lim reag = Al

28 27 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson If There is not enough Cl 2 to use up all the Al 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6 Lim reag = Cl 2 Deciding on the Limiting Reactant

29 28 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson We have 5.40 g of Al and 8.10 g of Cl 2 Step 2 of LR problem: Calculate moles of each reactant

30 29 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Find mole ratio of reactants This should be 3/2 or 1.5/1 if reactants are present in the exact stoichiometric ratio. Limiting reactant is Cl 2 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6

31 30 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Mix 5.40 g of Al with 8.10 g of Cl 2. What mass of Al 2 Cl 6 can form? Limiting reactant = Cl 2 Base all calcs. on Cl 2 Limiting reactant = Cl 2 Base all calcs. on Cl 2 moles Cl 2 moles Al 2 Cl 6 mass Cl 2 mass Al 2 Cl 6 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 ---> Al 2 Cl 6

32 31 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson CALCULATIONS: calculate mass of Al 2 Cl 6 expected. CALCULATIONS: calculate mass of Al 2 Cl 6 expected. Step 1: Calculate moles of Al 2 Cl 6 expected based on LR. Step 2: Calculate mass of Al 2 Cl 6 expected based on LR.

33 32 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson Cl 2 was the limiting reactant. Therefore, Al was present in excess. But how much?Cl 2 was the limiting reactant. Therefore, Al was present in excess. But how much? First find how much Al was required. First find how much Al was required. Then find how much Al is in excess.Then find how much Al is in excess. How much of which reactant will remain when reaction is complete?

34 33 © 2006 Brooks/Cole - Thomson 2 Al + 3 Cl 2 products mol mol = LR Calculating Excess Al Excess Al = Al available - Al required = mol mol = mol Al in excess


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