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Composition Stoichiometry

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Mass Percentage mass of element in compound molar mass of compound x 100%

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Percent Composition The sum of the mass percents of all elements that make up the compound. % A + %B + … + … = 100%

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Determining Chemical Formulas

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Mass Percentage mass of element in compound molar mass of compound x 100%

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Percent Composition The sum of the mass percents of all elements that make up the compound. % A + %B + … + … = 100%

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Determining Chemical Formulas

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Empircal (Simplest) Formula The smallest whole-number ratio of atoms (moles) in the compound Calculated from composition data Empirical formula is accepted formula for ionic compounds

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Determining Empirical Formula Convert composition data to masses in grams –Assume 100g of substance ( if given percent composition) Convert masses in grams to amounts in moles Find the simplest whole-number ratio

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CH % C, 14.4%H C2H4C2H4 C4H8C4H8 C 6 H % C, 14.4%H

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Calculating Molecular Formula Empirical FormulaMolecular Formula: Empirical Formula MassMolecular Mass : The molecular formula is proportional to the empirical formula The molecular formula mass must be proportional to the empirical formula mass

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Calculating Molecular Formula Determine the empirical formula Calculate empirical formula mass Determine ratio of empirical formula mass to molecular mass –molecular mass is experimentally determined Apply the ratio to the simplest formula

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Reaction Stoichiometry

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Balanced Formula Equations CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) 1 atom C 4 atoms H 2 atoms O 1 atom C 2 atoms H 3 atoms O CH 4 (g) + O 3 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 4 O (g) CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g)

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The Balanced Formula Equation CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g) Establishes relationships among reactants and products Can compare two species at once Mole ratios Mass relationships derive from the mole relationships

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Mole-to-mole moles G moles W Mole-to mass moles G moles W mass W

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Mass-to-mole mass G moles G moles W Mass-to-mass mass G moles G moles W mass W

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Can convert from G W only in moles Must use molar mass to convert G or W into moles

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Limiting Reagent and Excess Reagent

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Definitions Limiting Reagent –Reactant that runs out first –Causes reaction to stop –Limits the amount of product Excess Reagent –Reactant left over when reaction stops

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How can I tell which one is the limiting reagent?

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Finding the Limiting Reagent *How much do I have? *How much do I need?

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 1: Find quantities of all reactants in moles –convert from grams, if necessary

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 2: Divide each reactant by its coefficient from the balanced equation –Tells “how many” reactions can be fueled by that reactant Coefficient is moles per rxn

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 3: The smallest quotient from Step 2 is LR –can “fuel” the fewest number of reactions before it runs out

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How can I tell how much of the excess reagent is left over?

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Unreacted Excess Reactant Step 1: Determine LR –as shown previously Step 2: Use given quantity of LR as “starting point” Step 3: Calculate amount of ER needed to “use up” the LR Step 4: Subtract amount needed from amount available

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Theoretical Yield Actual Yield Per Cent Yield

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2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Theoretical Yield –Maximum amount of product you can possibly get –Based on the chemical equation –Determined by the limiting reactant

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Determining the Theoretical Yield Find the limiting reactant Use the given amount of the limiting reactant to calculate product –Do a regular stoichiometry problem

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Per Cent Yield Compares actual yield to theoretical yield Measures the efficiency of the reaction Will usually be less than 100%

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Actual Yield The measured amount of product actually obtained from the experiment –Cannot be calculated from the chemical equation –Must be determined in the lab –Usually less than theoretical yield

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Per Cent Yield % Yield = x 100% Part Whole Actual Theo.

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Empircal (Simplest) Formula The smallest whole-number ratio of atoms (moles) in the compound Calculated from composition data Empirical formula is accepted formula for ionic compounds

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Determining Empirical Formula Convert composition data to masses in grams –Assume 100g of substance ( if given percent composition) Convert masses in grams to amounts in moles Find the simplest whole-number ratio

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CH % C, 14.4%H C2H4C2H4 C4H8C4H8 C 6 H % C, 14.4%H

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Calculating Molecular Formula Empirical FormulaMolecular Formula: Empirical Formula MassMolecular Mass : The molecular formula is proportional to the empirical formula The molecular formula mass must be proportional to the empirical formula mass

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Calculating Molecular Formula Determine the empirical formula Calculate empirical formula mass Determine ratio of empirical formula mass to molecular mass –molecular mass is experimentally determined Apply the ratio to the simplest formula

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Reaction Stoichiometry

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Balanced Formula Equations CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) 1 atom C 4 atoms H 2 atoms O 1 atom C 2 atoms H 3 atoms O CH 4 (g) + O 3 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 4 O (g) CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g)

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The Balanced Formula Equation CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g) Establishes relationships among reactants and products Can compare two species at once Mole ratios Mass relationships derive from the mole relationships

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Mole-to-mole moles G moles W Mole-to mass moles G moles W mass W

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Mass-to-mole mass G moles G moles W Mass-to-mass mass G moles G moles W mass W

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Basic Stoichometric Relationships Can convert from G W only in moles Must use molar mass to convert G or W into moles

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Limiting Reagent and Excess Reagent

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Definitions Limiting Reagent –Reactant that runs out first –Causes reaction to stop –Limits the amount of product Excess Reagent –Reactant left over when reaction stops

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How can I tell which one is the limiting reagent?

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Finding the Limiting Reagent *How much do I have? *How much do I need?

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 1: Find quantities of all reactants in moles –convert from grams, if necessary

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 2: Divide each reactant by its coefficient from the balanced equation –Tells “how many” reactions can be fueled by that reactant Coefficient is moles per rxn

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Determining Limiting Reactant “The Easy Way” Step 3: The smallest quotient from Step 2 is LR –can “fuel” the fewest number of reactions before it runs out

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How can I tell how much of the excess reagent is left over?

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Unreacted Excess Reactant Step 1: Determine LR –as shown previously Step 2: Use given quantity of LR as “starting point” Step 3: Calculate amount of ER needed to “use up” the LR Step 4: Subtract amount needed from amount available

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Theoretical Yield Actual Yield Per Cent Yield

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2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Theoretical Yield –Maximum amount of product you can possibly get –Based on the chemical equation –Determined by the limiting reactant

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Determining the Theoretical Yield Find the limiting reactant Use the given amount of the limiting reactant to calculate product –Do a regular stoichiometry problem

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Per Cent Yield Compares actual yield to theoretical yield Measures the efficiency of the reaction Will usually be less than 100%

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Actual Yield The measured amount of product actually obtained from the experiment –Cannot be calculated from the chemical equation –Must be determined in the lab –Usually less than theoretical yield

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Per Cent Yield % Yield = x 100% Part Whole Actual Theo.

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