2Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Teacher notesIn ‘Slide Show’ mode, click the name of a section to jump straight to that slide.
3What is collision theory? Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsCollision theory states that for a reaction to occur:particles must collideparticles must have sufficient energyparticles must collide with the correct orientation.Teacher notesIt could be pointed out that the term ‘particles’ can refer to atoms, molecules or ions.The third point (collision with the correct orientation) applies only to molecules and molecular ions, since atoms are symmetrical.Most collisions do not result in reaction because they do not meet the second and third criteria.
4Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Activation energyBoardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesSee the ‘Energetics’ presentation for more information about energy and bond breaking.
5Effect of surface area on collisions Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsOnly the particles on the surface of a solid will collide with particles of the other reactant.If the surface area is increased, more particles will be on the surface and able to collide with particles of the other reactant. This means that there will be more collisions in total and therefore more reactive collisions.Surface area can be increased by decreasing the size of the reactant particles. Powders have a very large surface area.increasing surface area
6Reaction of marble chips with acid Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsThe effect of changing surface area on the rate of reaction can be explored by reacting marble (calcium carbonate) chips and an acid such as 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) ® CaCl2(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)The carbon dioxide gas evolved can be collected and its volume measured over time. The rate at which it is produced is a measure of the rate of reaction.Teacher notesStudents could be asked to produce a plan of how to run this experiment.It could be highlighted that measuring the rate at which a product is evolved is a common way of measuring rate of reaction. The rate at which gas is evolved is the gradient of a graph of volume evolved against time. An alternative way to measure rate of reaction is to measure the rate at which a reactant is consumed. This is often more difficult and so is a less common method.By repeating the experiment with marble chips of different sizes, the effect of surface area on the rate of reaction can be examined.
7Effect of surface area on rate: graph Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
8Effect of concentration on rate Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesThe animation will run continuously for 90 seconds unless paused.Students should be encouraged to note that for a higher concentration of reactants (the box on the right), there are more collisions in total and therefore more reactive collisions. A higher number of particles per unit volume increases the probability of collisions, and therefore their frequency. However, the ratio of reactive/total collisions (or the proportion of collisions that are successful) is not affected by concentration, being approximately 1:3 in both cases.
9Effect of concentration on rate: graph Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
10Effect of gas pressure on rate Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesThe animation will run continuously for 30 seconds unless paused.Students should be encouraged to note that for higher pressure (the box on the right), there are initially more collisions between the two types of reactant and therefore a faster initial rate of reactive collisions. In particular, students should be encouraged to note the rate at which the reactions occur in each case, how this rate changes as time progresses, and relate their observations to the changing proportions of reactants and product.A higher number of particles per unit volume increases the probability of collisions, and therefore their frequency. However, the ratio of reactive/total collisions (or the proportion of collisions that are successful) is not affected by pressure, being approximately 1:3 in both cases.This simulation involves reducing the volume in order to increase the pressure. Another way to increase the pressure while keeping the volume constant would be to introduce more particles into the vessel. This would also increase collision frequency and is another way of looking at the same explanation. It could be pointed out that increasing the pressure in a gas phase reaction is like increasing the concentration of reacting solutions. Both increase the number of particles in a given volume and thereby increase the collision frequency.
11Effect of pressure on rate: graph Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
12Effect of temperature on particles Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesStudents should be encouraged to notice that increasing the temperature increases both the average particle speed and the number of collisions per second. They should be able to relate the increase in speed to the increase in collisions. It could also be pointed out that at constant temperature, the collisions per second and particle speed do not remain exactly constant.
13Effect of temperature on rate Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsIncreasing the temperature of the reaction mixture increases the rate of reaction in the following two ways:1. At higher temperatures, the particles are moving faster, so collide more frequently. A higher number of collisions in total means a higher number of successful collisions.2. At higher temperatures, a higher proportion of the molecules have the activation energy or more. This means that a higher proportion of collisions is successful.
14Effect of temperature on rate: graph Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
15Collision theory summary Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
16Rate of reaction summary Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
17Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Teacher notesIn ‘Slide Show’ mode, click the name of a section to jump straight to that slide.
18Distribution of particle speeds Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesThe Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a theoretical model developed from kinetic theory.Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (1844–1906) was an Austrian physicist. James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. Maxwell used statistical methods to derive the Maxwell distribution, which gives the distribution of velocities of particles in a gas at a given temperature. This was later generalized by Boltzmann to give a distribution function for the distribution of states of a system.
19Energy distribution curves Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
20The effect of changing temperature Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
21Small temperature changes Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsThe Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution shows that for a small increase in temperature, there is a relatively large increase in the number of particles with at least the activation energy.no. of particlesenergyEano. particles with Ea almost doubledA small increase in temperature therefore leads to a large increase in rate.The increase in collision frequency is also a factor, but its effect is small compared to the increase in energy.
22Effect of temperature summary Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
23Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Teacher notesIn ‘Slide Show’ mode, click the name of a section to jump straight to that slide.
24Effect of catalysts on rate: graph Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
25Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics What do catalysts do?Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
26Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics How do catalysts work?Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsCatalysts increase the rate of reactions without being used up during the reaction.One way in which this occurs is for the catalyst to be changed during the reaction, then changed back in a second reaction with one of the reactants or products. This is an alternative reaction pathway.An example is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide:SO2(g) + ½O2(g) ® SO3(g)Teacher notesIt could be pointed out that an advantage of the catalyst not being consumed during the reaction is that only a small amount of catalyst is needed. This is an economic advantage, particularly since catalysts are often expensive materials. For example the catalyst in catalytic converters in cars is platinum, palladium or rhodium, all of which are expensive metals.See the ‘Alkanes’ presentation for more information about catalytic converters.This is catalyzed by vanadium(V) oxide:SO2(g) + V2O5(s) ® SO3(g) + V2O4(s)The catalyst is re-formed by reacting with oxygen:V2O4(s) + ½O2(g) ® V2O5(s)
27Catalysts and energy distribution curves Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
28Heterogeneous catalysts Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsThere are two types of catalysts: heterogeneous and homogeneous.Heterogeneous catalysts are in a different phase to the reactants. The catalyst is usually a solid and the reactants are liquids or gases (e.g. solid catalysts for gas reactions in catalytic converters).Photo credit: Astrid & Hanns-Frieder Michler / Science Photo LibraryA catalytic converter, a device which reduces the toxic emissions from an internal combustion engine by converting the harmful exhaust by-products into relatively harmless ones. Oxidation catalysts convert hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water. Three-way catalysts convert oxides of nitrogen back into nitrogen. A 90 percent reduction of pollution emission has been achieved without loss of engine performance or fuel economy. The addition of a catalytic converter to a car necessitates the use of unleaded fuel since the lead compounds added to regular petrol as anti- knocking agents can 'poison' the catalyst.Teacher notesSee the ‘Alkanes’ presentation for more information about catalytic converters.See the ‘Alkenes’ presentation for more information about the production of poly(e)thene.Industrial examples of heterogeneous catalysis include the iron catalyst used in ammonia production and the Ziegler–Natta catalyst used in poly(e)thene production.
29Homogeneous catalysts Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsHomogeneous catalysts are in the same phase as the reactants. The catalyst and the reactants are usually liquids, such as the hardener added to fibreglass resin.Photo credit: Martyn F. Chillmaid / Science Photo LibraryCatalyst being added to a beaker of fibreglass resin. The resin (poured from the tin at left) is liquid, and needs to have this catalyst added to it to make it harden. The hardener contains free radicals that initiate the setting process, triggering a cascade of bond formation that turns the liquid resin into a hard, glassy solid. Fibreglass is a fibrous form of glass that is tougher than ordinary glass. The resin is Fastglas from the David's company. The hardener is benzoyl peroxide (BPO). See A500/684 for another example of a catalytic hardening process.Another example of homogeneous catalysis is the destruction of atmospheric ozone catalyzed by chlorine free radicals. In this reaction the catalyst and reactants are in the gas phase.
30Advantages of catalysts Boardworks AS ChemistryKineticsUsing a catalyst means that a reaction can take place at the same rate as the uncatalyzed reaction, but at a lower temperature and/or pressure. This has the following advantages, which are particularly important in industry:lower energy demands……therefore less CO2 produced……therefore less environmental impact……and lower production costs.Teacher notesBiological washing powders will only allow efficient washing at lower temperatures than non-bio if the enzymes present are active enough at the temperature used. Most biological washing powders will not work well below about 30°C.One potential problem with catalysts is safe disposal, because some catalysts are toxic.A non-industrial example is enzyme catalysis in biological washing powders, allowing efficient washing at a lower temperature.
31Catalysts: true or false? Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
32Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Teacher notesIn ‘Slide Show’ mode, click the name of a section to jump straight to that slide.
33Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics GlossaryBoardworks AS ChemistryKineticsTeacher notesactivation energy – The minimum amount of energy particles need to have if a collision between them is to result in a reaction.catalyst – A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being consumed by the reaction. It works by providing an alternative route by which the reaction can take place, which has a lower activation energy.collision theory – A theory stating that for a reaction to occur the particles must collide, have sufficient energy (at least the activation energy) and collide with the correct orientation.energy distribution curve – A graph of energy against the number of particles in a sample with those energies. Also called a Maxwell–Boltzmann curve, the energy distribution curve is a representation of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.enthalpy level diagram – A diagram showing the amount of energy contained in the reaction mixture over time, beginning with the enthalpy of the reactants and ending with the enthalpy of the products. Also called an enthalpy profile diagram.heterogeneous catalyst – A catalyst in a different phase to the reactants.homogeneous catalyst – A catalyst in the same phase as the reactants.kinetic energy – The energy an object possesses due to its motion.Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution – The characteristic distribution of the energies of particles. Often plotted as a graph, called an energy distribution curve or Maxwell–Boltzmann curve, of energy against the number of particles in a sample with those energies.phase – A region of a physical system with uniform chemical composition or physical properties. For example, 'the gas phase' indicates a region composed only of gas.rate of reaction – The rate at which reactants are consumed or products are formed in a reaction.transition state – A state through which a reaction passes between the reactants and the products. It is the state that has the highest energy, represented by the highest point on an enthalpy profile diagram or enthalpy level diagram.
34Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics What’s the keyword?Boardworks AS ChemistryKinetics
35Boardworks AS Chemistry Kinetics Multiple-choice quizBoardworks AS ChemistryKinetics