Presentation on theme: "Balancing Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry"— Presentation transcript:
1Balancing Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Chemistry 100 Chapter 3Balancing Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry
2The Chemical Reaction What happens in a chemical reaction? Example2 H2 + O2 2H2OStarting materials (reactants) are converted into different chemical substance(s) (the product(s)).Described by ‘standard shorthand’ - chemical equation
3Balancing EquationsBalanced equations have the same number of atoms of a given element on the LHS and the RHSLaw of conservation of mass.All the reactants and products must be identified!Chemical equations report the results of experimentation!
4A General Method of Balancing Chemical Equations. Write the basic, or ‘skeletal’ equation, showing the formula of all reactants and products.Balance the equation according to the law of conservation of mass.Balance by adjusting the coefficients in front of the chemical formulas, never by adjusting the subscripts.Best to start with an atoms that appears only once on the left and right hand side of an equation.
6Chemical Reaction Types Combustion reaction can be written for any compound containing C, H, O or C, H, S etc. O2 (g) is present as a reactant and is usually in excess.We can also have combination and decomposition reactionsCombination reaction two or more substances combine to form one product2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)
7Reactions Types (II)Decomposition reaction one substance breaks down to form two or more different substancesMgCO3(s) MgO(s) + CO2(g)NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g)Decomposition of sodium azide, NaN32NaN3(s) 2Na (s) + 3N2(g)
8Molecular MassesHow do we use the atomic masses of elements to determine the molecular masses of molecules?We simply add the masses of the constituent elements in the molecule.
9The Mole and Avogadro’s Number NOTE: 1 amu = x g; this is a very small mass!!It is not a very convenient unit of measurement on the laboratory scale.In chemistry, we use a special unit (the mole) when dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions.
10The Definition of a Mole 1 mole (SI definition)the amount of substance that contains as many elementary particles (atoms, molecules, ions) as there are atoms in 12 grams (exactly) of carbon-12.This number is called Avogadro's number (it is an experimentally determined quantity).
11The Molar Mass 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 particles. 1 mole of carbon-12 has a mass of g exactly!The molar mass of any element in g/mole is the same numerically as its atomic mass in amu’s!
12Numbers in periodic table The molar mass of a compound is the mass (in grams) of 1 mole of a compound.Numbers in periodic tablee.g., Cl = g/mole= amu/atom
14Masses of Anions and Cations Electron mass is smallmass of Na+ mass of Namass of Cl- mass of Clmass of O2- mass of O atom!!
15Percent CompositionPercent composition is the percent by mass of each element in a compound.Q: If we have the percent composition of the compound, can we calculate its empirical formula?
16A Schematic for Doing Empirical Formula Calculations
17Chemical AnalysisUse a variety of techniques to obtain the identity and the % by mass of each element in a sample.Combustion analysis a sample containing C, H, or C,H, and O is combusted (burned).(C,H,O) CO2 + H2Oall the C in original compound gets converted to CO2all the H in original compound is converted to H2O
19Quantitative Information from Chemical Reactions ExampleA + B C + DNormally, we start out with certain quantities of reactants.How much product can we expect?How much reactant would we need to obtain a specified amount of product?
20The Mole MethodStoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical equation represent the number of moles of reactants and products.certain mass of reactants ? mass of productsinitial volume of reactants ? Volume of products
23Limiting ReagentChemical equations give the molecular or molar ratios of reactants needed and the products obtained.N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g)We assumed 100% complete conversion of of the N2 (g) and H2 (g) to NH3 (g).Normally, the reactants will react in the proper ratio until one of them is consumed completely.
24The Definition of the Limiting Reagent The amount of product formed is limited by the reactant that is completely consumed the limiting reagent.The amount of product obtained assuming complete consumption of the limiting reagent theoretical yield.The reactant that is left over the excess reagent.