Presentation on theme: "The Mole II Mathematical Relationships with Chemical Equations…Stoichiometry."— Presentation transcript:
The Mole II Mathematical Relationships with Chemical Equations…Stoichiometry
Suppose… You have to make a number of BLTs (bacon, lettuce, tomato sandwiches). Each sandwich requires 2 slices of bread, 4 slices of bacon, 2 slices of tomato, 1 leaf of lettuce, and 1 tbsp of mayonnaise. How many sandwiches can you make with 24 slices of bacon? 14 pieces of bread? 7 slices of tomato?
Information Contained in a Balanced Equation Viewed in Terms of Reactants C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) Products 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) molecules3 molecules CO molecules H 2 O1 molecule C 3 H molecules O 2 amount (mol) 1 mol C 3 H mol O 2 3 mol CO mol H 2 O44.09 amu C 3 H amu O 2 mass (amu) amu CO amu H 2 O mass (g) g C 3 H g O g CO g H 2 O total mass (g) g
Stoichiometry The relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a chemical reaction or form a compound “"Stoichiometry" is derived from the Greek words στοιχείον (stoikheion, meaning element) and μέτρον (metron, meaning measure.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoichiometry)
Info in a Chemical Equation 2C 8 H 18 ( l ) + 25O 2 ( g ) 16CO 2 ( g ) + 18H 2 O ( g ) 2 mol C 8 H 18 = 25 mol O 2 = 16 mol CO 2 = 18 mol H 2 O So…
MASS(g) of compound A MASS(g) of compound A AMOUNT(mol) of compound A AMOUNT(mol) of compound A MOLECULES (or formula units) of compound A MOLECULES (or formula units) of compound A Avogadro’s number (molecules/mol) MM (g/mol) of compound A molar ratio from balanced equation Summary of the mass-mole-number relationships in a chemical reaction. MASS(g) of compound B MASS(g) of compound B AMOUNT(mol) of compound B AMOUNT(mol) of compound B MOLECULES (or formula units) of compound B MOLECULES (or formula units) of compound B Avogadro’s number (molecules/mol) MM (g/mol) of compound B
Questions to Ask When Solving a Problem Are grams mentioned? If yes you will need to use a molar mass conversion. Are you comparing two different substances? If yes you will need a conversion using the coefficients in an equation. Are particles (atoms or molecules) involved? If yes you will need a conversion with Avogadro’s number. You may need any number of these conversions depending on the problem.
Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products PROBLEM: In a lifetime, the average American uses 1750 lb(794 g) of copper in coins, plumbing, and wiring. Copper is obtained from sulfide ores, such as chalcocite, or copper(I) sulfide, by a multistep process. After an initial grinding, the first step is to “roast” the ore (heat it strongly with oxygen gas) to form powdered copper(I) oxide and gaseous sulfur dioxide. (a)How many moles of oxygen are required to roast 10.0 mol of copper(I) sulfide? (b) How many grams of sulfur dioxide are formed when 10.0 mol of copper(I) sulfide is roasted? (c) How many kilograms of oxygen are required to form 2.86 kg of copper(I) oxide?
SOLUTION: Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products 2Cu 2 S( s ) + 3O 2 ( g ) 2Cu 2 O( s ) + 2SO 2 ( g ) 3mol O 2 2mol Cu 2 S = 15.0mol O 2 = 641g SO 2 = 0.959kg O 2 1 kg O g O 2 3mol O 2 2mol Cu 2 O 32.00g O 2 1 mol O mol Cu 2 S(a) 10.0mol Cu 2 S 2mol SO 2 2mol Cu 2 S 64.07g SO 2 1 mol SO 2 (b) 2.86kg Cu 2 O 10 3 g Cu 2 O 1kg Cu 2 O 1 mol Cu 2 O g Cu 2 O (c) (a) How many moles of oxygen are required to roast 10.0 mol of copper(I) sulfide? (b) How many grams of sulfur dioxide are formed when 10.0 mol of copper(I) sulfide is roasted? (c) How many kilograms of oxygen are required to form 2.86 kg of copper(I) oxide?
Now suppose… You have to make BLTs (bacon, lettuce, tomato sandwiches). Each sandwich requires 2 slices of bread, 4 slices of bacon, 2 slices of tomato, 1 leaf of lettuce, and 1 tbsp of mayonnaise. How many sandwiches can you make with 24 slices of bacon and 14 pieces of bread?
Limiting Reactants In most chemical changes you do not have the exact amounts of all reactants. In this case, one reactant will run out first. This reactant will limit the amount of product and so is called the limiting reactant or limiting reagent. The reactant(s) left over is called the excess reactant.
Calculating Amounts of Reactant and Product in a Limiting-Reactant Problem PROBLEM: A fuel mixture used in the early days of rocketry is composed of two liquids, hydrazine (N 2 H 4 ) and dinitrogen tetraoxide(N 2 O 4 ), which ignite on contact to form nitrogen gas and water vapor. How many grams of nitrogen gas form when 1.00x10 2 g of N 2 H 4 and 2.00x10 2 g of N 2 O 4 are mixed?
Calculating Amounts of Reactant and Product in a Limiting-Reactant Problem SOLUTION: N 2 H 4 ( l ) + N 2 O 4 ( l ) N 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) 1.00x10 2 g N 2 H 4 1 mol N 2 H g N 2 H 4 = 4.68mol N 2 3 mol N 2 2mol N 2 H x10 2 g N 2 O 4 1 mol N 2 O g N 2 O 4 = 6.51mol N 2 3 mol N 2 1mol N 2 O 4 N 2 H 4 is the limiting reactant because it produces less product, N 2, than does N 2 O mol N 2 1 mol N g N 2 = 131g N 2 243
Excess Reactant How much reactant was left in the previous problem? 6.51 mol N 2 possible but only 4.68 mol made = 1.83 mol N 2 not made
How many grams of aluminum carbonate are formed when 20.0 grams of sodium carbonate react with 25.0 grams of aluminum nitrate? How much of which reactant is left over?
Percent Yield Reactions do not always go to completion for many reasons. Percent yield is an expression of how much of the expected product actually formed. The theoretical amount generally comes from the stoichiometry of the reaction.
Calculating Percent Yield PROBLEM: Silicon carbide (SiC) is an important ceramic material that is made by allowing sand (silicon dioxide, SiO 2 ) to react with powdered carbon at high temperature. Carbon monoxide is also formed. When g of sand is processed, 51.4 g of SiC is recovered. What is the percent yield of SiC from this process? SOLUTION: SiO 2 ( s ) + 3C( s ) SiC( s ) + 2CO( g ) g SiO 2 1 mol SiO g SiO 2 = mol SiO 2 mol SiO 2 = mol SiC = mol SiC40.10 g SiC 1 mol SiC = g x 100=77.0% 51.4 g g
Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products for a Reaction in Solution PROBLEM: Specialized cells in the stomach release HCl to aid digestion. If they release too much, the excess can be neutralized with antacids. A common antacid contains magnesium hydroxide, which reacts with the acid to form water and magnesium chloride solution. As a government chemist testing commercial antacids, you use 0.10M HCl to simulate the acid concentration in the stomach. How many liters of “stomach acid” react with a tablet containing 0.10g of magnesium hydroxide?
Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products for a Reaction in Solution SOLUTION:Mg(OH) 2 ( s ) + 2HCl( aq ) MgCl 2 ( aq ) + 2H 2 O( l ) 0.10g Mg(OH) 2 1 mol Mg(OH) g Mg(OH) 2 2 mol HCl 1 mol Mg(OH) 2 = 3.4x10 -3 mol HCl 3.4x10 -3 mol HCl 1L 0.10mol HCl = 3.4x10 -2 L HCl