2 What is Stoichiometry?a branch of chemistry that deals with the quantitative relationships that exist between the reactants and products in chemical reactions.Stoichiometry can be used to calculate quantities such as the amount of products that can be produced with given reactants and percent yield (the percentage of the given reactant that is made into the product).
3 In Other wordsHow much product do I get when I mix certain amounts of Reactants together,Or, How much do I need to make what I want.
4 Steps in Stoichmetry Write the Balanced Chemical Equation. Convert the grams given into moles.Multiply by the mole ratio from the Balanced Chemical Equation.Convert the new number of moles to grams.
5 Why did I have to learn the Mole Equations? The second step in Stoichiometry requires you to convert from grams to moles (or things to moles)The fourth step in Stoichiometry requires you to convert from moles to grams (or moles to things)
7 The best way to learn is to do it So here we go: You have 5 grams of Lead (II) Nitrate mixed with an excess of Sodium Chloride, how many grams of Lead (II) Chloride will you produce?Step 1, write the balanced equation:Pb(NO3)2+ 2 NaCl PbCl2 + 2 NaNO3
12 One More timeYou have 5 grams of Lead (II) Nitrate mixed with an excess of Sodium Chloride, how many grams of Sodium Nitrate will you produce?Step 1, write the balanced equation:Pb(NO3)2+ 2 NaCl PbCl2 + 2 NaNO3
17 Moles instead of grams???In case of this, you can skip either step 2 or step 4, YEAH!!!!!!!!!!!!How many moles of Lead (II) Nitrate are needed to produce 6 grams of Sodium Nitrate?Back to Step 1:Pb(NO3)2+ 2 NaCl PbCl2 + 2 NaNO3
20 Limiting Reagent Problems Chemical Reactions will continue until one of the Reagents (Reactants) is used up.Once one of the Reagents is used up, the reaction stops!It doesn’t matter how much of the other one (Excess) is still left, the reactions STOPS.
21 Limiting Reactants require TWO complete Stoichiometry Equations One for each Reactant:SAME FOUR STEPS, Two times………..If 5.00 grams of Lead (II) Nitrate is reacted with 5.00 grams of Sodium Chloride, what is the Limiting Reactant (Reagent), and how much of the solid product is produced?Same STEP 1:Pb(NO3)2+ 2 NaCl PbCl2 (s) + 2 NaNO3
22 It is a gram to gram problem, so… You still have to do all the steps, but twice.Once for each reactant:
24 And……. 5.00 g Lead (II) Nitrate makes 4.20 g of Lead (II) Chloride. 5.00 g Sodium Chloride makes 9.81 grams of Lead (II) Chloride.So, Lead (II) Nitrate is the Limiting Reagent because it makes the least Product.Sodium Chloride is the Excess Reagent, it makes the most Product.Only the Least Amount can be made, so only 4.20 g of Lead (II) Chloride is produced.
25 YOU CAN ONLY MAKE THE … LEAST AMOUNT OF PRODUCT. A Car can only go as far as the Gasoline lets it go!!!!!!!!!!!
26 Percent YieldStiochiometry gives us a perfect answer in a perfect world.In the Real World not every atom reacts.If you run your car out of gas, you can still smell gasoline in the gas tank, some it still left, but the car won’t run.
28 ExampleIn a chemical reaction between Lead (II) Nitrate and Sodium Chloride the Stoichiometry determined that 4.20 grams should be produced. When the Experiment was actually performed, 3.95 grams was produced. What is the Percent Yield?% yield = 3.95 g actual X 100 = %4.20 g predicted