POLITICAL Results: Growth of Democracy / Suffrage rights (vocab) ◦ Rise of Middle and “Working” Class Informed Citizenry : ◦ Mass Media / Improved Communications Growth of Nationalism
Launched the Age of Imperialism… ◦ Raw Materials / Markets/Competition The Industrialized Nations became the world leaders by 1900: ◦ Great Britain ◦ U.S.A. ◦ Germany ◦ Japan
SOCIAL Results: A “Dynamic” Society… Increase in World Population Growth of Cities
Improved status of women Higher living standards Stimulus for Education
Humanitarianism / Philanthropy: ◦ Abolition of Slavery (1807- Britain, USA) ◦ Missionary Services ◦ International Red Cross ◦ Public Education ◦ Philanthropists: Nobel, Rhodes, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford
19 th Century developments in Science …(see charts/overheads) MEDICAL- cures/eradication of smallpox, yellow fever/malaria, germ theory, antiseptics, x-rays, psychology/psychiatry… GEOLOGY BIOLOGY/Botany/Cell Theory
GENETICS/Heredity Theory of Evolution- Charles Darwin Natural Selection/”Survival of the Fittest”
“Industrial Warfare”… (Workers vs. Employers) Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie) All of this is according to Karl MARX…
Governments began to abandon ‘Laissez- Faire’ in Labor- related matters… This will be called SOCIAL Legislation Begins in England with the…
Factory Act of 1833 Mines Act of 1842 Then things like Social Security laws… Eventually Spreads to Germany, France, and eventually the US…
Movements to Displace Capitalism: SOCIALISM/COMMUNISM (Marxism): Socialists sought to reform society through government/economic changes… Robert Owen/Utopian Socialism (impractical-too idealistic/didn’t work)
Then: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels write the Communist Manifesto in 1848… Called for a ‘working class’ Revolution… “Workers of the World Unite!” See charts/handouts/overheads…(time permitting)
Marxism/Socialism/Communism Marx envisioned a ‘classless’ society based upon his principles of Communism… Marxist ideas/principles: (see chart/overhead) Remember:
Socialism can be achieved democratically, or peacefully- at the ballot box…This is called ‘Democratic Socialism’ However, Communism can ONLY be achieved through Revolution/VIOLENCE!
Thus: the “Radical Left” = Communism, or Totalitarianism… Ex: Russian Revolution/USSR
Marx believed Socialism/Communism was inevitable and that Capitalism would eventually self-destruct… However, he was WRONG!
Capitalism would change/improve over time and incorporate many changes brought about by the Labor movement and governments who passed Social Legislation
So…Capitalism would become even better and stronger!