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Session Two: Lutheranism Takes Root (1600 ~ 1800).

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1 Session Two: Lutheranism Takes Root (1600 ~ 1800)

2 Schedule Overview 1.Moving to the New World (1600 ~ 1700) 2.Lutheranism Takes Root (1600 ~ 1800) 3.Becoming “American” (1800 ~ 1900) 4.Remaining “Ethnic” (1800 ~ 1900) 5.Lutherans Unite (1900 – 1962) 6.Lutherans Divide (1962 – 1988) 7.The ELCA: A Brief History (1988 – Today)

3 Last Week in Review Discussed two primary questions What defines a Lutheran? Who is one? Discussed legacy of Martin Luther’s theology and its impact on Lutheranism in America Experiential & Realistic Pietist & Orthodoxy Movements Discussed what brought people to the New World

4 Last Week in Review Questions, comments or smart remarks regarding last week’s class?

5 This Week A Closer Look at Four Early Lutheran Settlements 1. The Dutch in the New Netherlands 2. The Swedes in New Sweden 3. The Danes in the Virgin Islands (not shown) 4. The Germans/Austrians in Georgia

6 A CLOSER LOOK The New Netherlands

7 The “OLD” Netherlands About the “Old Netherlands” – Was never a center for Lutheranism in Europe – The first “free” Lutheran churches – independent of national government – were developed in the Netherlands Developed their own church administration Instituted a pattern of worship (borrowed from the Reformed tradition)

8 The NEW Netherlands Dutch West India Company charter (1621) stipulated that only the Reformed religion would be given official recognition in the NEW Netherlands –Officially, the same situation as in the “old Netherlands” –Policies were more enforced in public than in private

9 The NEW Netherlands In the New Netherlands, enforcement eventually became more strict –Baptisms ONLY allowed in Reformed tradition –No instances of public worship (or even HOUSE churches!) allowed except in Reformed tradition

10 The New Netherlands 1649, Lutheran laypeople organize themselves into a congregation stretching from Manhattan to Albany –Not solely Dutch –Germans, Danes, Frisians and Norwegians included “HELP!!! We need a pastor!” –Took 8 years to get one

11 The New Netherlands John Ernst Gutwasser – Ordained in Amsterdam April 10, 1657 – Sent to New Amsterdam, 1657 Change in New Amsterdam Tolerance Policy Good-bye, Pastor Gutwasser!

12 The New Netherlands British take over control of the colony in 1664 – Colony changes names to New YORK – Lutherans allowed to worship in public and have their own Lutheran pastor Congregation expands happily – Erects a new building – Call a pastor to preach and baptize Pastor Jacob Fabritius, newly arrived Pastor of the Lutheran Church of New Amsterdam in 1669. Congregation grows and divides into two YOR K Not a real photograp h!

13 New York St. Matthew Lutheran Church Manhattan First Lutheran Church Albany

14 New York Pastor Jacob Fabritius served the congregation well for many years, but had some vices that led to his demise… –Strong drink –Flamboyant red clothing –Equally colorful vocabulary He moved on to New Sweden where he served well. #@&^*!! !!

15 New York Bernhard Arensius (1671- d. 1691) Vacant (1691-1702) Anders Rudman (1701-1702) – Came from New Sweden Justus Falckner (1703- d. 1723) – Ordained at Gloria Dei Lutheran Church in Philadelphia in 1703. Great example of Lutherans coming together for a united purpose: in this case, Swedes were using Latin to set aside a German national to serve Scandinavians, Poles, Germans and others in Dutch! ENSUING PASTORATES

16 New York Dutch? German? English? LANGUAGE CONCERNS

17 New York WHAT WENT WELL Cooperation among leaders of a common confession – even among different nationalities – can be beneficial Worship Style Lay-Leadership Development Multi-cultural environment WHAT DIDN’T Quick pastorates followed by long pastorates developed a unique power structure –Laity and clergy struggle to know their place Took a long time to “cut the cord” with their home country Lay-Leadership at time was OVERdeveloped leading to “pretenders”

18 New York Questions, comments or smart remarks?

19 A CLOSER LOOK New Sweden

20 Colony comprised of southwest Pennsylvania, western New Jersey and northern Delaware Colony formed by Sweden in 1638 –LUTHERANS were in charge of government and church! –Sweden still held control, however

21 New Sweden First Pastor of New Sweden Strict instructions for ministry Mission work with the Natives Johan Campanius

22 New Sweden Dutch assume rule of colony in 1655 – Different religious toleration policy than in New Amsterdam English assume rule of colony in 1664 – Much more tolerant than Dutch – Flood of Anglicans (Church of England) into colony

23 New Sweden WELCOME, PASTORS ANDERS RUDMAN, ERIC BJORK AND JONAS AUREN! Gloria Dei Church Eric BjorkHoly Trinity Church

24 New Sweden WHAT WENT WELL Saw their presence as missionary in nature Adapted to the culture WHAT DIDN’T Financial support was low –Still came from Sweden Pastors were lazy and/or reluctant to be here –“Did their time” then left for a “real” job Refused to let go of the Swedish language

25 New Sweden Very few new immigrants came from Sweden – More from England, Germany, Finland and the Netherlands Refusal to offer services in English led to many transfer to the Church of England King of Sweden withdrew all support from the American mission in 1789. By 1846, all seven congregations joined the Episcopal Church. WHAT HAPPENED NEXT?

26 New York Questions, comments or smart remarks?

27 A CLOSER LOOK Danish Virgin Islands

28 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS The Danish West Indian and Guinea Company helped to secure St. Thomas for Denmark in the mid-1660s.

29 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS Pastor Kjeld Jensen Slagelse founds second oldest Lutheran congregation in the western hemisphere in 1666 - Frederick Lutheran Church in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas

30 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS DIFFICULT BEGINNINGS Meager supplies, disease and death = BAD Governor George Jorgen Iverson A Danish Church for Danes…but what about the Africans?

31 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS A mission to the African Slaves – The German Moravians – Early Failures – Later Successes Development of Schools – Instruction – Language – The Way to Freedom

32 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS Governor Peter von Scholten proclaimed emancipation on July 3, 1848.

33 DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS WHAT WENT WELL Mandatory worship brought in money Adapted to new languages Adapted to new cultures & needs Focused on contextual education WHAT DIDN’T ?

34 New York Questions, comments or smart remarks?

35 A CLOSER LOOK Salzburgers in Georgia

36 THE SALZBURGERS DO YOU REMEMBER? The Treaty of Augsburg Thirty Years’ War The Peace of Westphalia

37 THE SALZBURGERS Count Leopold Anton Eleutherius von Firmian, Archbishop of Salzburg (1727-1744)



40 Their Downfall: SLAVERY

41 THE SALZBURGERS WHAT WENT WELL Stuck to what they knew was important –Worship –School/Education –Orphanage/Outreach WHAT DIDN’T Stuck to their identity Adapted too much to Southern culture (esp. in regards to slavery issue) Pastoral leadership led to conflict Intentional Lutheran Community project failed

42 NEXT WEEK Becoming “American” (1800 ~ 1900)

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