Presentation on theme: "CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Flag of Imperial China Flag of Communist China."— Presentation transcript:
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Flag of Imperial China Flag of Communist China
With over 5000 years of history…. WHERE ON EARTH DO YOU START?? Where else? The ‘cuddly’ Giant Panda. CHINA WEEK – Nov 3rd – 7th Interesting facts: 99% of its diet is bamboo (shock) The Giant Panda belongs to the bear family. Unofficial emblem of China – lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, having been forced there by human activity. An endangered species though recent studies suggest there are up to 3000 in the wild and rising. Despite the image of a shy, docile lifestyle, has been known to attack humans!
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Or perhaps the horrific custom of Foot binding… A deformed foot caused by binding. -Introduced in the 11 th Century and only banned after the Chinese Revolution in 1911. - Girls as young as 3 or 4 had their feet tightly bound with bandages to fold all but the big toe under the sole to make the foot slender and pointed. - After a couple of years, the big toe and heel brought together, bending the arch, causing constant pain. - This stunted their growth, made normal walking impossible and women’s progress down the street slow and painful. - was believed to be attractive to men.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th On a lighter note….. On a lighter note….. Chinese Inventons Paper! Fireworks and Gunpowder The Umbrella Ice Cream The Crossbow The Compass Dominoes Playing Cards The Wheelbarrow The Kite The Yo-Yo
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th CHINESE HISTORY – THE HIGHLIGHTS... CHINESE HISTORY – THE HIGHLIGHTS... THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA - Much of Chinese history – from the earliest Emperors to the modern Communist rulers - can be characterised by war, suffering, poverty, weakness, foreign domination and dictatorship. - The Great Wall of China best sums this up. It took nearly 1700 years to build in and is over 4000 miles long in total – aim was to defend the northern borders against the Mongol invaders. - Between 2 and 3 million died building the wall through accidents, disease and starvation. - At its peak, during the Ming dynasty, over 1 million men guarded the wall. - p.s. it is a MYTH that the Great Wall can be seen from space – sorry…
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th THE TERRACOTTA ARMY, XIAN - Emperor Qin Shi Huang became the first ruler of a unified China in 221 BC and ruled until his death in 210 BC. - He was responsible for a large part of the construction of the Great Wall of China but perhaps most famous for the Terracotta Warriors. - Discovered in 1974 by a peasant digging for a well in Xian, the 8000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses were buried with Emperor Qin so that his mausoleum (as yet un-excavated) could be guarded for eternity. - 700,000 workers were involved in the work – some were buried alive to prevent them divulging the tomb’s secrets. - They are all life-sized and have individual expressions and legend has it that they are to help Qin rule in the afterlife. Emperor Qin
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Despite the terrible poverty of the vast majority of the Chinese people, the Emperors lived in privileged luxury and were treated like Gods. The Forbidden City, Beijing - Built from 1406 – 1420, the Forbidden City served as the Chinese Imperial Palace for 24 Emperors and their households until the Chinese Revolution in 1911. - It remains the world’s largest surviving palace complex, comprising 720.000 sq. metres, 980 buildings and 8,707 rooms. - The Emperor, representing Yang and the heavens, would occupy the luxurious Palace of Heavenly Purity whilst the Empress, representing Yin and the earth, was based in the Palace of Earthly Tranquility. - Emperors were treated as Gods – all would kneel to the floor in a ritual kowtow and would never look directly at the Emperor on pain of death.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th By the 19 th Century, opposition to the privileged and corrupt Emperors was beginning to rise. One such occurrence was the infamous Taiping Rebellion of 1851-66. The Memorial to the Taiping Rebels - Led by a failed Civil Servant Hong Xiuquan - In 1851, he launched a revolt and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace with himself as king and claimed he often had visions of God and he was the brother of Jesus Christ. - Old habits such as slavery, arranged marriage, foot-binding and torture were banned. - revolt was crushed with the help of British and French troops. Not only was this the first major challenge to the Emperors but also the costliest civil war in history and the 2 nd bloodiest of any war ever – between 20 and 30 million killed.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th THE 20TH CENTURY - SUFFERING AND CHAOS The Last Emperor Pu-Yi - The Chinese Revolution of 1911 saw the collapse of the Manchu Dynasty and was motivated by anger at poverty, government corruption and by frustration with the government's inability to restrain the interventions of foreign powers such as Japan, Great Britain, Germany and the United States who were treating China like a Colony. - Emperor Pu – Yi, who came to the throne aged 2 years and 8 months in 1908, was forced to abdicate in 1912. The rule of the Emperors was at an end. Chang Khai-Shek, Nationalist Leader -If the Chinese people hoped that the revolution may bring them new prosperity and stability then they were to be disappointed. - The next 40 years saw a battle between the Nationalists under Chang Khai-Shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong. On top of this, China suffered millions of casualties and brutal oppression following the Japanese invasion of 1937. - In 1949, a broken and exhausted country underwent a second, this time Communist, Revolution under Mao.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Chairman Mao – Chinese Communist Leader 1949- 1976 - In October 1949, Chairman Mao seized power in China and declared the victory of Communism. From now on, it would be The People’s Republic of China. - He promised that China would now be ‘free from inequality, poverty and foreign domination.’ - Transform China he most certainly did but with incalculable suffering and mayhem.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th - Mao’s brutal regime was notorious for many reasons but the following two examples perhaps best sum up the scale of the catastrophe faced by the long suffering Chinese. i) The Great Leap Forward 1958-60 – Mao was determined to modernise China by transforming her from a backward agricultural state to a modern industrial one. Peasants were herded into huge communes – 100,000 in each - and forced to massively increase food supplies. There was chaos in the countryside – food supplies were taken to feed those in the growing cities and also sold abroad. A bad harvest on top of all this led to a terrible famine in 1960 - over 20 million died of starvation. ii) The Cultural Revolution 1966 – 76 – Mao deliberately unleashed the country’s students in a concerted and violent attack on authority, backed by a propaganda onslaught. The students felt liberated and were whipped up into mass hysteria. Books were burned, museums pillaged, factories and hospitals closed as the campaign spiralled out of control. Pupils attacked their teachers in schools – many were beaten with sticks, were made to kneel on hot charcoal or broken glass or had their hair chopped off and were screamed at in their faces. Over one million were killed or committed suicide. The madness only fully ended with Mao’s death. Student power was evident again in 1989 but with very different results.
CHINA WEEK – Nov 3 rd – 7th Flag of Imperial China Flag of Communist China