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GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Ethnic and Religious Conflict.

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Presentation on theme: "GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Ethnic and Religious Conflict."— Presentation transcript:

1 GO131: International Relations Professor Walter Hatch Colby College Ethnic and Religious Conflict

2 Grave Threat to Peace

3 Why so much conflict now?

4 Bye Bye Cold War

5 How to Characterize? Revival of “Ancient Hatreds?” Natural Divisions (tribal, ethnic) Revenge of “Bad Borders?” Unnatural Divisions (a legacy of colonialism)

6 Or Exploitation of Divisions? Babri Masjid (1992)

7 What does Posen say?

8 What Realists Always Say … Territory Power politics Security Dilemma

9 Case #1: Arabs and Jews

10 Returning to Palestine Palestine Arabs in the Ottoman Empire Zionist dreams Escaping pograms in Russia and Poland Balfour Declaration (1917) The 1930s Jewish refuge Arab alarm British blockade

11 The Palestine War (1948) End of the British Mandate UN Partition land grab Deir Yassin massacre great power politics

12 UN Partition Plan (1947)

13 Israel Holds its Own The Birth of Israel (May 14, 1948) Arab attacks from north, south, and east Repelled and reversed

14 The Suez Crisis (1956) Gamal Abdel Nasser Nationalizes the Suez Canal (1955) Blockades the Gulf of Aqaba (1955)

15 Strategic Waterways

16 Israel, the UK, and France The secret plan Israel attacks Egypt (10/29/1956) UK and France intervene (10/30/56) US calls for restraint USSR supports US Israel relinquishes its spoils UNEF patrols

17 Six-day War (1967) Syria Fatah raids Egypt expels UNEF from Sinai blockades Gulf of Aqaba (again) Israel Responds with lighting attacks Occupies key territories Preempts the UN

18 Expanded Israel

19 The October War (1973) Syria and Egypt attack on Yom Kippur Risk of Soviet-US proxy war Geneva Peace Accords (12/73) UN observers in Sinai and on Golan Heights

20 Camp David Accord (1979) Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter and Menachem Begin

21 From Tourist Trap to Failed State

22 Carving up Lebanon Civil War (1975) Muslims vs. Christians Syria occupies central Lebanon Israel invades (1982) US intervenes

23 Intifadeh First Palestinian uprising (1988) Rock throwing Economic boycott Strikes

24 Oslo Peace Accord (1993) Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, Yasir Arafat

25 Great Expectations Jordan-Israel peace agreement (1995) Syria-Israel negotiations (1999) Barak plan (2000) “Land for Peace” Torpedoed by Arafat

26 From Sharon to Olmert

27 The Second Intifadeh Palestinians revolt Suicide bombers Israeli reprisals Leveling villages

28 New Peace Efforts Bush’s “Road Map” (2001) Abu Mazen as PA PM (2003) Two Palestines? Fatah in West Bank Hamas in Gaza

29 Terror Continues Reem Raiyshi with her son Obida, 3, before she set off a bomb in Gaza on 1/26/04, killing herself and four Israelis.

30 The Fence

31 The Occupation Continues

32 Case #2: Hindus vs Moslems

33 Two Battles for Independence British rule (from early 17 th century) East India Company “divide and conquer” Fighting for sovereignty Hindus under Mahatma Gandhi Moslems under Mohammed Ali Jinnah

34 Partition (1947)

35 Kashmir British had installed a Hindu prince in predominantly Moslem region (1846) During partition, Moslems revolted New Pakistan state supported New Indian state opposed War (1948-49)

36 A Region Divided

37 Pakistan’s Allies Military regime (General Ayub Khan) Unlike India under Congress Party (Nehru) Bandwagoning with the U.S. Friendship with China

38 Kashmir War of 1965

39 Bloody Birth of Bangladesh Resentment of East Pakistan 1970 cyclone 1971: Calls for independence West Pakistan cracks down Bengali refugees spill into India India intervenes Aligns with USSR Indira Gandhi orders a strike

40 Nuclear confrontation Battle of nuclear tests (1998) Terrorist attacks inside India Playing nuclear chicken (2003)

41 Case #3: Sudan

42 Background Independence from UK in 1956 Civil War for all but ten years (72-82) Muslim Arabs in the north Christian/animist Africans in the south Northerners control Khartoum regime Military junta seized power in 1989 Allied with National Congress Party (NCP), formerly the National Islamic Front (NIF) Islamic Law (Sharia) and Arabization

43 Racial Chauvinism Child soldier in south Ibrahim Omar, head of NCP

44 “Leave Only the Birds” Depopulation Strategy Emptying villages in the south Trains and horsemen Slavery “Buy-back” program ($50 per person)

45 Slavery in Sudan

46 Darfur

47 Marginalization A region ignored Arab militia versus the African SLA Khartoum backs the Arabs Tens of thousands killed 1.5 million displaced

48 Humanitarian Crisis in Darfur

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