Presentation on theme: "Rebecca Dawson Marshall 2009-2010 Walter Stiern Middle School Standard: HSS 8.7."— Presentation transcript:
Rebecca Dawson Marshall 2009-2010 Walter Stiern Middle School Standard: HSS 8.7
The Civil War was one of the greatest dramas in American history. Almost 620,00 Americans were killed in this war. It all started with two sides of America who disagreed on slavery.
At the convention of 1787 when the constitution was written, it became clear there were natural differences between the North and South. The North opposed slavery while the South required it. Also their climates were different leading to different kinds of farming and lifestyles.
The North opposed slavery because they saw it as cruel and unfair, which it was. North had little slaves because it was more industrial than agricultural. They had a merchant fleet and a fishing trade. Also the South depended on the North’s export merchants, ships, and banks.
The South was more agricultural than industrial They depended on growing tobacco, rice, sugar, and especially cotton for almost all of their income. So the South needed slaves more than anything and they also didn’t see it as cruel and unfair like the North did.
Time passed and the Northerners step-by-step outlawed slavery in their states. By 1820 there was considerable opinion against it there. Bitter political battles were fought over slavery in new states and territories. Leading politicians cared about the Union however to make compromises But during one of the debates in 1856 actual warfare flamed up leaving about 200 deaths. Eventually a compromise was made but both regions were left outraged.
In the election of 1880 Southern and Northern democrats each nominated their own Candidate for president. Since no one could win, the presidency fell to the candidate of the new Republican party, Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln disliked slavery but any attempt to change things would certainly cause Southern states to secede from the U.S.
Southerners conclude that they now had a president who was dead set against slavery so South Carolina and 6 other Southern states seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860. Both sides refused to compromise. Lincoln knew that the nation couldn’t stay strong half free half slave and that emotions for and against slavery were too strong to exist side by side.
Although Lincoln hated slavery he had to keep the U.S from splitting up. On April 12, 1861, guns from Charleston began to fire at Fort Sumter. Major Anderson was forced to surrender and the war was on.
On February 8,1861 delegates from 7 Southern states met at Montgomery, Alabama and formed the Confederate Sates of America. The war began with much confidence and martial spirit on both sides. Lincoln hoped for an early victory but it was going to take a while
After the attack on Fort Sumter, 4 more states seceded. With Virginias secession, Richmond was named the Confederate capitol. People in the western counties of Virginia didn’t wish to secede. This section of Virginia was admitted into the Union as the state of West Virginia on June 20. 1863.
On January 27, 1862 Lincoln issued a war order telling the Union to launch a unified aggressive action against the Confederacy. General McClellan ignored the order. On March 8,1862 Lincoln—Impatient with McClellan’s inactivity– issued an order reorganizing the Army of Virginia and relieve McClellan of Supreme command.
On September 17,1862 Confederate forces under General Lee were caught by General McClellan near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Because General Lee withdrew to Virginia, General McClellan was considered the victor. The battle gave Lincoln the opportunity to announce his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
General Lee’s troops were soon surrounded, and on April 7, Grant called on Lee to surrender. On April 9, the two commanders met at Appomattox courthouse and agreed to the terms of surrender. In December of 1865 the 13 th amendment to the U.S. constitution was ratified.
After the civil war, African Americans had a lot more freedom and were able to live their own lives. Later on after the Civil War African Americans were still treated differently and were segregated, but people like Martin Luther King Jr. changed that. Today people of every color and race are equal and have equal rights.
Internet Source #1: Pillai, Prabhaker. “Slavery During the Civil War”. May 26, 2008. Buzzle.com. February 25, 2010. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/slavery-during-the- civil-war.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/slavery-during-the- civil-war.html Internet Source #2: Foner, Eric. “America’s Reconstruction”. Digital History. February 25, 2010. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/credits. html http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/credits. html Internet Source #3: Freeman, Joann. Selected Civil War Photographs. January 15, 2000. American Memory. March 8, 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwmtm/cwphome.html http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwmtm/cwphome.html Book Source #1: Collier, Christopher & James l. Collier. The Civil War. Benchmark Books. 2000. pg. 9-23.