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1450- 1750 Review. REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION.

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Presentation on theme: "1450- 1750 Review. REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION."— Presentation transcript:

1 1450- 1750 Review

2 REVOLUTIONS IN THOUGHT AND EXPRESSION

3 Revolutions to Thought and Expression Crusades opened Christians to Islamic civilizations and trade – Europeans exposed to new developments and history – Leads to four main movements: the Renaissance, the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

4 The Renaissance (Rebirth) After black Death, demand for goods and services increased Urbanization Middle class (bankers merchants, and traders emerged) Influx of moneyUse money to study the past

5 Humanism Medieval Europe- thoughts of salvation and afterlife; earth to be suffered through on the way to heaven Humanism- person accomplishment and personal happiness. Participation on the “here and now” Fascination with Greek and Roman concepts of beauty and citizenship Shift focus to life on Earth and celebration of human achievements

6 Art The Medici Family: turned Italy into a showcase of architecture and beauty Michelangelo-painter; Sistine Chapel Brunelleschi- The dome of the Florence Cathederal Leonardo da Vinci-painter/ sculptor Donatello-painter/ sculptor Van Eyck brothers-Dutch artists Albrecht Durer- German painter

7 New Techniques Application of humanistic ideas Use of light and shadow made figures appear full and real Autopsies to understand the structure of the human body Linear perspective – Developed by Tommaso Masaccio and Fillipo Brunelleschi – Gives art three-dimensional quality Architects get Greek and Roman influence to build domes on cathedrals

8 Art Medieval Times Humans flat, stiff, and out of proportion Almost entirely religious Mostly in cathedrals Did not try to be “worldly” Renaissance Used realism to make humans look softer Religious and secular Commissioned by religious and secular leaders Seen in cathedrals, plazas, and public homes Very worldly

9 Western Writers [1400s] Johannes Gutenberg invents printing press – Books easy to produce – More affordable – Written in different vernaculars (native languages) – More literate and educated people

10 Books! Most were practical or political Machiavelli [1517 C.E.] The Prince Erasmus [late 1500s] In Praise of Folly Sir Thomas More [late 1500s] Utopia William Shakespeare [late 1500s] Venus and Adonis, Julius Caesar, etc

11 Protestant Reformation Catholic church was a unifying force and intermediary between man and God Finance projects funded by indulgences – Paper faithful could purchase to reduce time in purgatory – Church maintained power over masses – Angered people; seen as corrupt

12 Martin Luther [1517] 95 Theses – Frustrations with church practices – Church services should be conducted in local languages (not Latin) Translated the Bible into German Believed salvation given by God through grace, not the authorization of the church Believed the Bible taught self salvation (no need for pope) Pope Leo X outraged and excommunicated Luther Followers- Lutherans

13 John Calvin Calvinism Predestination- God predetermined ultimate destiny for all people – Those saved known as “Elect” [1530s]Protestant theocracy in Geneva in Switzerland

14 King Henry VIII Church of England (Anglican Church) King did not have authority of pope to annul marriage of Catherine of Aragon King Henry VIII declared himself head of religious affairs in England – [1534] Act of Supremacy

15 The Counter-Reformation Catholic Reformation [16 th Century] Led by Spain Banned the sale of indulgences, consulted more frequently with bishops, trained priests to live the Catholic life, weekly mass mandatory – Regained some lost credibility – “Clarifying the Catholic Church’s position”

16 The Jesuits Ignatius Loyola Restoring faith in teachings of Jesus interpreted by the Catholic Church Self control and moderation Prayer + good works = salvation Oratorical and political skills; many appointed by kings to high palace positions

17 The Council of Trent [1545-1563] Dictated and defined Catholic interpretation of doctrine Re-established Latin as language used in worship

18 The Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus [1543] On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Sphere – Earth and other celestial bodies revolve around sun: “Heliocentric” – Earth rotates on axis Galileo [1632] Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems of the World – Showed how Earth revolved on axis and stars distance – Put on trial before Inquisition in Rome – Book put on “The Index”, a list of banned works

19 The Scientific Method Replaced scholastic method based off of “reasoning” One had to prove an idea, document it, repeat it, and publish it Tycho Brahe [1546-1601] built observatory Francis Bacon [1561-1626] Johannes Kepler [1571-1630] laws of planetary motion Sir Isaac Newton [1642-1727] Law of gravity

20 Scientific Revolution Scientific inquires conducted with practical goals in mind Produced a larger number of people rejected church’s rigid pronouncements that conflicted with scientific findings – Atheists: No God exists – Deists: God exists, but plays passive role. “God as watchmaker”

21 The Enlightenment Focused on mankind in relation to government Social contract: governments formed to meet social and economic needs of people

22 Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas Hobbes [1588-1679] Leviathan – people greedy and prone to violence; government should preserve peace and stability “at all costs” John Locke [1632-1704] Two Treatises on Government – Man had unalienable rights (life, liberty, and property), up to government to secure and grant them; people were justified in replacing government if these rights weren’t met Jean Jacques Rousseau [1712-1778] – All men equal; majority rule; essence of freedom to obey laws that people prescribe for themselves

23 Enlightenment Writers Voltaire – Religious toleration Montesquieu – Separation of powers among branches of government

24 Enlightened Monarchs Ruled absolutely but made attempts to tolerate diversity, increase opportunities for serfs, take on responsibility of rule Joseph II of Austria Frederick II of Prussia

25 EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION: EMPIRES OF THE WIND

26 Portuguese Exploration Cut out the Muslim middlemen Advances in ship-building, navigation, and gunpowder allowed for increased sea travel

27 Portuguese Success Royal family supported exploration [1488] Bartholomew Dias rounded tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) [1497] Vasco de Gama rounded Cape of Good Hope, east African kingdoms, and established trade relations in India

28 Spain vs Portugal [1492] Christopher Columbus went west and found the Americas [1494] Portugal and Spain fighting over Americas – Treaty of Tordesillas

29 Explorers Amerigo Vespucci [1500s]- many explorations of South America; America named after him Ponce de Leon [1513]- explored Florida for Spain to find fountain of youth Vasco de Balboa [1513]- laid sight on Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan [1519]- crew circumnavigated the globe

30 More Explorers Giovanni da Verrazzano [1524]- explored North American coast for France Sir Francis Drake [1578] first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe John Cabot [1597] explored coast of North America for England Henry Hudson [1609] sailed for Dutch looking for Northwest Passage; made claims around Hudson River

31 Technology that made Exploration Possible The Sternpost Rudder- better navigation and control of ships Lateen Sails- sails allowed ships to sail in any direction, regardless of wind The Astrolabe- measured distance of sun and stars to determine latitude The Magnetic Compass- determine direction Three-Masted Caravels- large ships could hold provisions for longer journeys

32 Cortes and the Aztecs [1519] Hernan Cortes landed on coast of Mexico with 600 men Hooked up with neighboring people of Aztecs who were willing to help Cortes defeat Aztecs Montezuma (Aztec Ruler) thought Cortes was a god & brought Cortes gold Spaniards seized Montezuma and began siege of Tenochtitlan Control by [1525]

33 Francisco Pizarro Went for Incan Empire in [1531] 200 men with him Disease + Weapons = success Control of Inca in [1535]

34 Disease Weapon of mass destruction – Smallpox – Infections new to Americas, no natural resistance to them

35 The Ecomienda System Peninsulares- Spanish officials to govern the colonies Crillos or Creoles- People born in the colonies to Spanish parents Mestizos- European and Native ancestry Mulattos- European and African Native Americans- little or no freedom

36 The Ecomienda System Viceroys provided peninsulares with land and number of native laborers Peninsulares protect natives and convert them to Christianity Reform needed: switch to African slavery

37 The African Slave Trade Europeans traded guns and goods to African leaders in exchange for slaves [mid 15 th century] Portuguese captured Africans Demand increased; Europeans kidnapped Africans or pitted groups against each other to control weapons trade

38 The Middle Passage Middle Passage: sea route from Africa to the Americas – Approx. 13 million Africans took journey – 60% to South America – 35% to Caribbean – 5% to North America Death rates ~20% on Middle Passage

39 The Columbian Exchange Transatlantic transfer of animals, plants, diseases, people, technology, and ideas among Europe, the Americas and Africa Two key products: sugar and silver

40 The Commercial Revolution Joint- Stock Company- organization created to pool the resources of merchants, distributing the costs and risks and reducing danger for individual investors Monopolies – The Muscovy Company of England: trade routes to Russia – The Dutch East India Company: trade routes to the spice islands Mercantilism- country tried not to import more than it exported

41 Asian Trade Portuguese set up trading post in Goa (west coast of India) and Spice Islands Dutch formed Dutch East India Company and had raids on Portuguese ships and trading posts. – 1600s, Dutch became biggest power in spice trades England and France: trading posts in India China and Japan limited trade with Europeans

42 SPAIN AND PORTUGAL

43 Spain [1469] King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella get Spanish authority under one house – Supported exploration – Survival and expansion of the Spanish language and culture – Built naval fleet

44 Portuguese Domination of costal Africa, the Indian Ocean, and Spice Islands Limited manpower; could not control colonies Lost colonies to Dutch and British – Faster ships, heavier guns

45 Charles V [1519] Charles elected Holy Roman Emperor Held land in France, the Netherlands, Austria, and Germany, plus Spain Fought for control of Italy and Ottoman Turks for control of eastern Europe – Led to expansion of Ottoman rule Defended Catholicism against Protestantism [1556] gave control of Austria and Holy Roman Empire to brother, Ferdinand I Gave control of Spain, Sicily, the Netherlands to son, Philip II

46 Philip II Spanish expansion in New World Continuation of Spanish Inquisition – Led to Catholic Reformation against Protestants – Increase in missionary work in New World [1581] Dutch (mostly Protestant) revolted and gained independence from Spain

47 ENGLAND

48 England: the Elizabethan Age King Henry VIII’s daughter, Elizabeth I “Golden Age” [1558-1603] commercial expansion, exploration, and colonization Muscovy Company & British East India Company, Drake, first English colonists in Roanoke colony, Shakespeare

49 James I Elizabeth dies; [1607] James I comes to power Attempted to institute reforms for Catholics and Puritans Puritans did not want to accept James I as divine right – Cross the Atlantic… Pilgrims to Plymouth colony

50 Charles I Son of James I; rose to power in [1625] Petition of Right: document limiting taxes and forbidding unlawful imprisonment – Charles ignored petition after securing funds he needed; ruled without calling another meeting of parliament for 11 years.

51 Charles I [1640] Parliament called when Scotland invades England – Know as Long Parliament: limited absolute powers of monarchy – [1641] denied Charles's request for money to fight Irish rebellion

52 Charles I Charles led troops into House of Commons to arrest some members  civil war Roundheads under Oliver Cromwell to fight king – Defeat armies of Charles I (Cavaliers) – King tried and executed

53 Oliver Cromwell Rose to power as leader of “English Commonwealth” – Then Lord Protector – Religious intolerance and violence against Catholics.

54 Charles II Restore a limited monarchy Stuart Restoration [1660-1688] Acknowledged rights of the people (esp. religion) – Habeas Corpus Act: protects people from arrests without due process

55 James II After Charles II Open Catholic and unpopular; believed in divine right of lings Glorious Revolution – James II driven from power by Parliament – James II flees to France

56 William and Mary [1688] replace James II Protestant rulers of the Netherlands English Bill of Rights [1689] – Ensured England’s future monarch would be Anglican – Powers would be limited

57 FRANCE

58 France Began to unify after Hundred Years’ War with strong monarchy French Protestants (Huguenots) develop during Protestant reformation Huguenots vs French Catholics [1598] Henry IV issues Edict of Nantes – toleration

59 France Henry IV was the first Bourbon king Cardinal Richelieu: chief advisor to Bourbons – Compromise with Protestants – New bureaucratic class: the noblesse de la robe

60 Louis XIV 4 years old when he inherited the crown Cardinal Mazarin(his mom) ruled until he was an adult Louis XIV nicknamed “Sun king” and “The Most Christian King” – Absolute monarch – Ruled under divine right – “I am the State” – Versailles – Never called Estates-General – Revoked Edict of Nantes (many Huguenots left)

61 War and Succession Jean Baptise Colbert appointed by Louis XIV to manage royal funds Wanted to increase size of French empire for business transactions and taxes (French mostly at war) War of Spanish Succession [1701-1714] – Philip V, Louis XIV’s grandson could rule Spain – Spain couldn’t combine with France – France had to give up territories to England

62 HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

63 Holy Roman Empire Located in present day Austria Geographically dominated but feudal – Local lords – Weakened the empire

64 Holy Roman Empire Lost parts of Hungary to the Ottoman Turks in the early [16 th century] The Thirty Years’ War [1618-1648] devastated the region; weakened role of Holy Roman emperors [18 th century] northern German city-states (esp Prussia) gaining momentum & power

65 [1555] Peace of Augsburg: bring end to constant conflict between Catholics and Protestants Thirty Years’ War [1618]Protestant territories challenged authority of emperor  religious and political war [1648] Peace of Westphalia: independence of small German states

66 RUSSIA

67 Russia [1480]Ivan III refused to pay tribute to Mongols; declared Russia free of Mongol Rule Established absolute rule in Russia (uniting and expanding it) Cossacks: peasants promised freedom from feudal lords if they conquered and settle lands east of Russia

68 Time of Troubles Ivan IV dies in [1584] [1604-1613] Feudal lords battled over who should rule [1613] Michael Romanov elected czar – Romanov Dynasty Added stability Ruled until [1917] Serfs almost slaves Expansion

69 Peter the Great In power from [1682-1725] Westernize Russia – First navy – St. Petersburg as new capital “window to the west” – Recruited western Europeans to westernize Russia – Women wore western fashions – Men shaved their beards

70 Catherine the Great Ruled from [1762-1796] Continued westernization – Education – Western culture – Western expansion (Poland, the Black Sea)

71

72 Ottoman Empire Mongol Empire fell, Muslim Ottoman Empire rose in Anatolia – Founded by Osman Bey – Unify and challenge the Byzantine Empire – “Turks” [1453] invaded Constantinople and ended Byzantine Empire

73 Changes in the Ottoman Empire Conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul Hagia Sophia and cathedrals converted into mosques Empire more tolerant to religion, but changed with expansion Within 100yrs, Ottomans conquered much of Roman empire region

74 Selim I [1512] came to power Claimed he was the rightful heir to Islamic tradition under Arab caliphs Istanbul= center of Islamic civilization Christian subjects and children captured and turned into fighting warriors (Janissaires)

75 Suleiman I [1520] came to power (aka Suleiman the Magnificent) Built up Ottoman military “golden age” [1520-1566] – Tried to push into Europe

76 Ottoman Empire Lasted until [1922] Expanded Islam Pressure on Eastern Europe allowed Western Europe to dominate the world

77 The Safavids Based on military conquest Shia Islam In between Ottomans and Mughals

78 Mughal Empire

79 The Mughal Empire [1526] Babur- leader claimed to be descended from Genghis Khan Dominated Indian subcontinent for 300 years United most of subcontinent

80 Akbar Grandson of Babur Ruled [1556-1605] unified much of India by practicing religious toleration – Open practice – Elimination of jizya (head tax on Hindus) – Attempted to eliminate sati Established golden age of art, architecture, and art – Taj Mahal built under Akbar’s grandson, Shah Jahan

81 Post-Akbar era Religious toleration ended – Muslims reinstated jizya – Hindu temples destroyed – Muslims persecuted Hindus; Hindus organizing against Muslims Arrival of Europeans – British and Portuguese scrambled for trade in India

82 Africa

83 Songhai Islamic state Economic ties to Muslim world Sunni Ali built Songhai by conquest and military force – navy – Central administration – Timbuktu as major Islamic center Fell to Moroccans (they had muskets)

84 Kongo Close economic and political relationships with Europe (esp. Portugal) Kings of Kongo (ex. King Alfonso I) converted to Roman Catholicism – Kingdom converted State declined as Portuguese desired slaves

85 Angola Trading post in Portugal [1575] – Expanding trade – When Portugal tried to exert authority, Queen Nzinga resisted 40 years resisted Portuguese control, allied with Dutch Could not unify rival or overcome Portuguese

86

87 China & the Ming Dynasty [1368] Ming Dynasty restored power to native Chinese – ruled until 1644 Strong centralized government Civil service exams Built large fleets – Zheng He: naval voyages

88 Ming Government “single-whip” system- silver currency – Silver obtained first through Japan, then Spanish through the Philippines [16 th century] Ming in decline – Europeans and pirates [17 th century] – Famines and peasant revolts [1644] Qing warrior from Manchuria to quell peasant uprising – Take over; Qing (Manchu) Dynasty ruled until [1912]

89 Qing Dynasty Not ethnically Chinese; tried to remain “elite” – Forbade Chinese to learn Manchu language or marry Manchus Opened up civil service exams to lower classes Kangxi Ruled [1661-1722] Confucian scholar Supported arts Conquered Taiwan, extended empire to Mongolia, central Asia, and Tibet Qianlong Ruled [1735-1796] Confucian scholar Supported arts Conquered Vietnam, Burma, and Nepal

90 Manchu trade Rights to Portuguese, Dutch, and British When Manchu felt threatened, they would expel certain groups – [1724] Christianity banned – [1757] trade only in Canton Europeans brought tea, silk, and porcelain for sliver

91

92 Japan [16 th century] shoguns stilled ruled, emperor figurehead Centralized power began to emerge when power of feudal lords reduced Westernization – Christian missionaries – Jesuits take over Nagasaki and trade flourished

93 Tokugawa Shogunate Established by Tokugawa Ieyasu Strict, rigid government that ruled until [1868] Power away from emperor Ieyasu claimed ownership to all lands Rigid social class model Warrior Farmer Artisan Merchant

94 Tokugawa period “Edo period”- capital moved to Edo Christians persecuted [1635] National Seclusion Policy – Prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad – Prohibited foreigners to visit Executed group of Portuguese diplomats and traders that tried to negotiate an open trade [1640]

95 Culture Absence of other cultures= Japanese cultures to thrive Buddhism and Shinto Kabuki theatre Haiku poetry

96 The Big Picture Technology helped Europe become a powerful force Expanded knowledge of the world (by exploration by the Europeans) Increased contact= spread of new ideas and technology

97 Powerful women took charge of powerful empires – Elizabeth I (England), Isabella (Spain), Nur Jahan (Mughal, India) Status and freedoms of women changed little – Legally considered property of husbands – Few rights in legal or political spheres Biggest change: mixing cultures (mestizo) Exception: matrilineal societies in Africa (men engaged in slave trade)

98 Global Economy Sailing: diminished need for Asian land routes, connected the world Mercantilism: economic and political developments Private Sector: larger number of people had direct stake in trade and conquest – Governments began to lose their grip on controlling economies


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