Presentation on theme: "Part 2. İnterpersonal Communication İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons. Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people."— Presentation transcript:
İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons. Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people for any communication?
interaction between two persons.
b. Use of natural and/or technological means of communication
c. Differing or matching Goals, interests and needs
d. Power relations e.g.: between master and slave; between boss and worker; between sellers and buyers; even between two friends
e. Organized place Place is socially, politically, culturally and/or economically organized. Social organization of place: Political orgnzn: Economical organization: Personally organized space: Q: Is public space organized? Is a mountain organized?
Public space is organized by the state: There is no free public space where in people can freely express themselves and do things as they wish. Public space is culturally, economically, and political organized. You cannot do anything ypou want.
f. Organized time (and also space/place) 1. Socially organized in general: e.g. Organization of time according to minutes, hours, days and weeks (What kind of organized time is “work time? Who can organizes it? Who can not? THEN, is socially organized time “organized by “social entity as a whole?
Can you organize a space for a social activity?
2. Politically organized: e.g., election time and place, voting time and place, campaign time and place, demonstration time and place. Can you as an individual organize a time (or space) politically? Outcome of it?
f. Organized time 3. Culturally organized: Festivals, special days, holidays (Is cultural organizaton independent from others?) Can you organize a time and space for a cultural activity?
f. Organized time 4. Economically organized time (and space): organizing working time and place Can you as an individual (not as, e.g., a manager) organize a time and space for an economical activity?
f. Organized time 5. Personally organized time and space What are the determining conditons of organizaton of time by someone/you?
Interpersonal communication May be: w Technologically mediated or unmediated w Now or delayed w Informal or formal w Friendly or not
Who and where are persons in interpersonal Communication ? Who? You and others as friend, parents, child, student, boss, worker, manager, soldier, policeer. Where? At home, school, work place, street, mall, cinema, stadium
Always keep in mind that You are somebody in some organized time and place Under certain organized conditons With Certain power and interests
You do not live in a vacuum as an independent and free agent/entity: You can not live and act as you wish. You live in a society which is organized according to power realtions
Your freedom does not start at the point where my freedom ends. Your freedom is determined by your and others’ economical power.
Why is interpersonal Communication ? Because of Social Psychological Cultural Economical Political Necessity Need Goal Interest
Objectives and outcomes of interpersonal communication
w Attaining a goal/objective w Meeting a need w Identifying ourselves and others w Establishing a context for certain relationship (e.g., understanding)
Identity construction, maintenance or repair Explaining/understanding, forecasting and controlling a relationship Establishing and tanimlama a relationship Establishing and tanımlama context of relationship
Relationship maintenance Relationship development Relationship repair Mediation and conflict resolution Ending a relationship Resatarting a relationship
To eliminate uncertainty and gain knowledge Participate in reproduction of dominant interests and goals in organized structures Participate in struggles against the injustice, despotism, exploitation, slavery, oppression in organized structures
Nature of interpersonal communication changes according to, e.g.: Expectations Goals Interests Position of a person in the interaction Organized roles and duties Property relations Power relations
Interpesonal communication Can be: w Coincidental w Spontaneous, unplanned or planned w Temporary, midterm, long term or lifetime w Superficial or profound/intense w Fake, insincere or frank, genuine, sincere w Informal or formal
Context of interpersonal communication includes. E.g.: Nature of organized space Nature of organized time Nature of power relations Nature of objectives, personal and/or organized interests Nature of past and present contexts Personal and structural feelings
Interpersonal Communication Beginnings Relationship bulilding Self-disclosure Attachment
Who can and who can not decide on starting and ending a relationship at the beginning? Interpersonal Communication: Decision to stop at the beginning
Relationship maintenance Getting closer Establishing domination Interpersonal Communication Maintenance and intensification
Uncertainty reduction for deciding on starting a relationship Uncertainty reduction for relationship development Uncertainty reduction
a. Avoiding conflict b. Conflict and conflict resolution Interpersonal Communication Maintenance
Oral Communication and Verbal Communication
Oral Communication: involves communication via word of mouth; speaking, saying something.
Verbal Communication: Word of mouth or speaking or saying something also becomes verbal communication when society at the literate level.
Oral Communication: is historically the oldest form of communication as compare to the verbal communication.
Oral Communication and verbal communication is done via saying something by using voice.
Saying something by using human voice can be Simply a sound that means something; calling; expression of fear, pain, happiness; informing a danger or a happening
Saying something by using human voice can be using socially coded unwrritten language (oral tradition, illiterate times; no written codes).
Saying something by using voice can be Using words in a written language. This is also verbal communication. (we generally use oral communication and verbal communication interchangably)
Verbal communication requires use of Language in literate sense. It is the word of mouth expression beyond oral traditon of illeterate societies, at the level of written tradition of literate age.
Verbal communication includes articulation and pronunciation of written codes (alphabet). People using oral communication in illeterate times can not spell or articulate by using letters.
E.g., You can articulate the oral expression of “dna” in reverse, however an illeterate person can not.
Oral communication is the establishement, maintenance or termination of any kind of relationship by means of only saying (the unwritten words).
Verbal communication is the establishment, maintenance or termination of any kind of relationship by means of saying written or unwritten words.
Oral/Verbal communication occurs in organized time in organized space in power relations to attain certain goals
Oral/verbal communication can be technologically mediated Or technologically unmediated
technologically unmediated: Using human voice
Technologically mediated: Using instruments in oral/verbal communication in order to (a)reach beyond a human voice can be heard (domination over spatial boundaries). (b)Overcome immediacy of orality
Technologically mediated: 1. Spatial extension of oral calling by using instruments similar to megaphone (they still use their voices) (same time, but long distance)
Technologically mediated: 2. Spatial extension of voice, sound and oral expression by using megaphone, microphone, telephone, cellphone (same time but long distance)
Technologically mediated: 3. Spatial extension of voice, sound and oral expression by using Recording (different time and different space/place)
Oral/verbal communication can be: at the same time and same place at the same time but diferent place
at diffrent time and same place at different time but diferent place
A word or vocal sound by itself is not communication per se. A word or vocal sound is a necessary mean for establishing oral/verbal communication.
Non verbal communication
Nonverbal Communication is the communication done by non-verbal means (no words are used)
In nonverbal communication, we establish, sustain or terminate a relationship or activity without using words.
Nonverbal communication İncludes signs that have social meaning.
Social meaning of a sign can be same or different in different communities. E.g.: leg crossing, head shaking, crying, gazing
If a sign has no socially attached meaning, then it is not considered as means of communication. E.g.: hand movements while talking
Nonverbal signs: 1.Icons (iconic signs) They resemble the signified a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, some road signs. Iconic signs are used in, e.g., conveying a meaning and directing/controlling a behavior. Web understand what they mean when web see them and behave accordingly (or otherwise).
Nonverbal signs: 1.Icons (iconic signs) They resemble the signified/referred: a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, some road signs. Iconic signs are used in, e.g., conveying a meaning and directing/controlling a behavior. Web understand what they mean when web see them and behave accordingly (or otherwise).
They do not resemble the signified/referred: A letter in an alphabet, a word ile “cat” Symbols have socially attached meaning. Nonverbal signs: 2. Symbols (Symbolic signs)
They are learned in such a way that web establish meanings and drive conclusions. Dark clouds ……. It will rain Smoke…………… fire Knock on the door… someone at the door. Nonverbal signs: 3. Index
Signs can have a.Common codes b.No codes.
Signs with common codes are part of a language, thus are means of non-verbal communication
For instance: Shaking head Hand shaking Some hand motions
Signs with no common codes are not considered as language and thus are not means of non- verbal communication
Signs with no common codes are also used in interpersonal interaction, but they are arbitrary, subjective, personal and abstract, hence it does not considered as language. in general.
Some signs have more than one meaning and higly context bound: arms crossing, looking downword, winking, looking straight to other person’s eyes, crying when accused.
Functions of nonverbal communication
İdentity building and management, identity marketing, promotion of self via certain behavior, dress/clothing, eating and drinking certain products, attending to certain places,
Relational status marketing by using the same tools in the personal identity politics of consumerism.
Expressing certain emotional reaction Via tone of voice, facial expression, hand motions, looking, manner of walking,
İkna: Nasrettin Hocanın kürküne bakarak Hocayı değerlendiren, biçimin özün önüne geçirildiği hasta dünyada, kürkü giyen Nasrettin Hocanın ikna gücünü artırır.
Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir: Regulation of interaction: Ortak kodlar kullanımıyla (örneğin tastik, kabul, devam et, anladım gibi anlamlara gelen sözsüz ifadelerle) karşılıklı konuşmanın düzenlenmesine yardım eder.
Regulation of flow of communication: Sözsüz Communication paylaş ı lan sözsüz semboller yoluyla communication akışını düzenlemeye yardım eder.
Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir: Affirmation or disagreement function: Sözlü kelimelere anlamla ilgili ekleme yapar. sözü pekiştirir veya tam aksine kasıtlı olarak sözü yadsır.
Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir: Completion function: Sözü tamamlar; Sözü kelimelerin anlattığından daha güçlü olarak veya daha farklı olarak anlamlandırmadır;
Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir: Attention gathering function: Dikkat çekmek için vurgulamayı sağlar (örneğin masaya vurma, sesini birden yükseltme);
Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir: Replaces the oral expression Sözle olan bir anlatımın sözsüz olarak bir işaretle yerini alır ( örnegin evet anlamına baş sallama, Amerikalılarda küfür yerine orta parmağını göstermesi ).
Types of nonverbal Communication
Yer ve mesafe tutma: Proxemics Dokunma: Haptics Jestler: Kinesics
Göz ve bakış: Occulecsics Zaman ve statü kullanımı: Chronemics Paralanguage
Maddeler ve Eşyalar: Artifacts Fiziksel görünüş: Physical appearance
Organized mind an behavior management: PUBLIC RELATIONS
The earliest definitions emphasized press agentry and publicity, while more modern definitions incorporate the concepts of “engagement” and “relationship building.”
The 1982 definition by PRSA: “Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other.”
In 2011/12, PRSA led an international effort to modernize the definition of public relations: “Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.”
“the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation (or individual) and it’s (or their) publics” (www.pria.com.au, 2007)
PR 1. is a basic function of management/admnstrtn 2. has unavodable managerial/admnstrv functions
PR 3. Meets the research and evaluation needs before an managerial decision and activity.
PR 4. Is a tool to establish rastionalism and effectiveness in admnstrtv decision making. 5. is a continuous and systematic process.
PR 6. Manages relationship with audience, consumer or public. 7. public participation, mediation, agreement and service are important in PR.
PR 8. Requires long term commitment
Pr is activity to influence an organization’s internal and external rerlations.
PR Are planned activites to manage minds and behaviors in order to reach certain objectives.
PR Helps society to reach decisions helps society to work effectively Helps private and public policies in harmony.
Press agentry: describes the activities of people who would do anything to get attention for their organisations, event or product. Public information: describes public relations becoming more sophisticated and evolving into accurate one-way information on behalf of organisations.
Two-way asymmetric: describes two-way public relations work which is biased to propagating the organisation’s views, rather than responding to messages from publics. Two-way symmetric: is Grunig and Hunt’s ideal model for public relations. In this model, the publics’ views are respected and are given the same importance as the views of the organisation sponsoring the public relations work” (Johnson & Zawawi 2004, p63).
What is the basic activities of pr?: What does pr do?
PR protects and enhances the reputation of a company. PR provides information to the public as well as specific audiences about any changes or news occurring within an organization. PR concentrates on what a company needs to gain public attention and uses the media to accomplish this. PR acts as a trained spokesperson on behalf of a company and looks for new ways to improve the way the public views it.
1.Consultancy 2.Advocacy 3. Publicity
4. Making and applying personel or member relations
5. Managing Public affairs. 6. Relations with Public institution 7. Issue management 8. Managing finance relations
9. Managing Industrial relations 10. Fund raising. 11. Managing ethnic/ a zınlık relations and multicultural affairs.
PR benefits society: It is a tool for public interest It talks to insensitive organizations for public It talks to public for organizations. Hence, ıt establishes mutually beneficial connection between public and organizations.
“let public be fooled” Circus promoter Phineas Taylor Barnum
PR: PR associations and their ethics principles
Organized mind and behavior management: Advertising
Concept of Advertising
The Advertising Industry 1. The Advertisers (The clients) Regional and National Advertisers 2. The Advertising Agency The Client-Agency Relationship 3. The Suppliers in Advertising 4. The Media of Advertising
Advertising is Communication
Scope and Importance of Advertising
Nature of Advertising
Advertising and Society
The Economic Impact of Advertising The Social Impact of Advertising Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics How Government Regulates Advertising Government Restraints on International Advertisers Gevernment and nongovernment regulations
Technologically mediated mind management system: Mass Communication
Mass Com is com mediated by newspaper, radio, book, magazines, television, internet etc.
Mass com development
Development of carriers of communication
Development of recorders of communication
Development of capacity
Development of size (movable, carriable)
Development of durability
Books and Printing
Development of print technology
Technical Media Telegraphy and Analog Technology
Photography ("writing with light")
Telephony ("sound over distance")
Phonography ("writing with sound")
Film and gramophone
Digital Technology The Turing machine
Organization of mass communication
Groups of mass communicaiton Printing tech: e.g., Books Newspapers Magazines Elekronic and digital tech: e.g., Radyo Televizyon WEB Cemical tech: e.g., Film
Kitle iletişiminin endüstri tiplerine göre gruplandırılması Kitaplar Genel ilgi Okul Referans uzmanlık Magazinler Haber magazinleri Kadın magazinleri Erkek magazinleri Gazete ekleri Tüketici magazinleri Ticari magazinler Vb. Gazeteler.Günlük gazeteler Ulusal bölgesel Yerel.Günlük olmayan gazeteler Müzik ve plak. Gramafon ve Plak. Teyp ve digital teknoloji Film Sinema Tv Radio Ulusal Yerel Uluslararası Televizyon Ulusal Yerel Uluslararası WEB
Roles of Mass communicaiton
media and representation
Who Controls the Media and their Meanings?
. Public communication occurs whenever there are a large number of people.
Public communication involves lectures, rallies, convocations, and religious services.
w Public speaking is usually much more structured than interpersonal communication.
w Public speaking usually requires more formal language and a more formal style of delivery than other types of communication
w Computer mediated communication w and w İnternet
. Flow of resources
Flow of media and tools
Flow of end products Software Programs Films
. Flow of professional ideologies and professional practices