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“ Picturing American History” Slavery Teaching American History In Miami-Dade County November 20, 2010 Fran Macko, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "“ Picturing American History” Slavery Teaching American History In Miami-Dade County November 20, 2010 Fran Macko, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 “ Picturing American History” Slavery Teaching American History In Miami-Dade County November 20, 2010 Fran Macko, Ph.D.

2 The Sunshine State History Standards US History Grade 8 –Benchmark SS 8.A.4.2 – Describe the debate surrounding the spread of slavery into the Western Territories and Florida

3 The Essential Question What was unique about the system of slavery that developed and was sustained in the United States and how did those held in servitude able to develop and sustain their cultures ?

4 How do we define reading? The “traditional” definition includes: –The process of recognizing vocabulary and decoding printed text. –The process of making meaning from text with an emphasis on vocabulary, phonics, fluency and comprehension. More recently, reading is defined in a broader sense to include visual elements.

5 What is visual literacy? –Visual literacy is the ability to interpret information presented in the form of an image. –Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read”. Students view an image and construct an interpretation.

6 What are the levels of visual literacy? Level 1 is basic identification of the subject or elements in a graphic, photograph, or work of art. Level 2 is understanding what we see and comprehending visual relationships. Level 3 is placing the image in the broader context of the historical period.

7 Why is visual literacy an important skill for understanding history? Visual literacy activities provide access to content for students who have difficulty reading text. Primary source documents in history are often visual; paintings, photographs, cartoons and other images figure prominently in the resources that are available for students. State and local assessments frequently ask students to interpret images.

8 Our Focus: Multiple Perspectives on Slavery What were the images of slavery in the years leading up to the Civil War? What was the reaction to these images? How was this reaction captured by the emerging medium of photography? What was the role of photography in the pro- and anti- slavery movements of the era?

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10 Taking a Closer Look Using the Image Analysis Worksheet, complete questions 1 – 3. – Observation. What do you see in this photograph? – Inference. Make some reasonable guesses about this photograph. When, would you guess, was the photograph taken? Where was the photograph taken? Why are the people here, doing what they are doing? Why was this photograph taken, would you guess? – Inquiry. Write a question that is left unanswered by this photograph.

11 Read “Page from the Eustatia Plantation Account Book 1861”. Review your responses to questions 1 – 3.

12 Page from the “Eustatia Plantation Account Book 1861” the 15 Sunday. This day clear & cold The Negroes all at rest; 3 sick the 16 Monday. This day clear & pleasant The woman & boys picking cotton 2 men making bridges. 2 workin in the blacksmiths shop. 8 working on the leavy 2 at the corn mill 4 halling fier wood; 3 sick the 17 Tuesday. This day clowdy and cool The woman & boys knocking down burs The men at the same work as yesterday The river riseing; 3 sick the 18 Wednesday. This day clear & pleasant The same work as yesterday -- The river riseing -- Majer Chatard got from Mrs. C.C Eustis 200 feet of inch plank to make guttas for sistern this morning; 4 sick the 19 Thursday. This day clear & pleasant 8 men working on the leavy The blallance of the hands dooing the same work as yesterday; 4 sick the 20 Friday. This day clear The men roling loggs The woman & boys cleaning up the field River still riseing within 10 feet of top of bank

13 Then, complete questions 4 – 9. –Do you think that the photographer has a message beyond simply documenting the moment? If so, what might the message have been? –Write a question that is still left unanswered about the photograph. –What would be a good title for the photograph? –Write a question that you would like to ask the people in the photograph. –Write a question that you would like to ask the photographer.

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15 Taking a Closer Look Using the Image Analysis Worksheet, complete questions 1 – 3. – Observation. What do you see in this photograph? – Inference. Make some reasonable guesses about this photograph. When, would you guess, was the photograph taken? Where was the photograph taken? Why are the people here, doing what they are doing? Why was this photograph taken, would you guess? – Inquiry. Write a question that is left unanswered by this photograph.

16 Read excerpt from “Slave Auction 1850”. Review your responses to questions 1 – 3.

17 Excerpt from “Slave Auction 1850” The slaves remained at the race-course, some of them for more than a week and all of them for four days before the sale. They were brought in thus early that buyers who desired to inspect them might enjoy that privilege, although none of them were sold at private sale. For these preliminary days their shed was constantly visited by speculators. The negroes were examined with as little consideration as if they had been brutes indeed; the buyers pulling their mouths open to see their teeth, pinching their limbs to find how muscular they were, walking them up and down to detect any signs of lameness, making them stoop and bend in different ways that they might be certain there was no concealed rupture or wound; and in addition to all this treatment, asking them scores of questions relative to their qualifications and accomplishments.”

18 Then, complete questions 4 – 9. –Do you think that the photographer has a message beyond simply documenting the moment? If so, what might the message have been? –Write a question that is still left unanswered about the photograph. –What would be a good title for the photograph? –Write a question that you would like to ask the people in the photograph. –Write a question that you would like to ask the photographer.

19 Visual Literacy and Accountable Talk Once the historic context for an image has been set and students analyze each of the images, they can compare the images. Discussion or accountable talk can be structured around a series of guided questions.

20 Digging Deeper: Comparing Two Images

21 Describe the scene and the figures in each image. –What are the similarities and differences? Compare the setting of each image. –How does the setting contribute to the meaning of the image?

22 Describe the mood of each work. –How did the photographer achieve that mood? Each photograph is about slavery. –How does the photographer want the viewer to feel about the main subject? –Find something in the photograph that supports your opinion.

23 Photographers plan their work and give careful thought to the arrangement of people and objects. –How has each photographer placed his figures to enhance the “story” of the photograph? –What is similar and different about each composition? How does each image add to your understanding of the impact of slavery in Antebellum America?

24 Pairing Images with Resources from CICERO Binary Padeia – North and South –http://www2.cicerohistory.co m/Cicero/subscriber/content/ Books/Book-7/L02- BinaryPaideia/NorthAndSou th.pdfhttp://www2.cicerohistory.co m/Cicero/subscriber/content/ Books/Book-7/L02- BinaryPaideia/NorthAndSou th.pdf Information Sites – The Underground Railroad –http://www.nationalgeograph ic.com/railroad/ Videos: –“Slavery” –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/navigate/CiceroMoviePlaye r.do?filename=/Cicero/subscriber /content/Books/Book-7/L09- Videos/Slavery_DrSteveNewton/ playlist.flv.xmlhttp://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/navigate/CiceroMoviePlaye r.do?filename=/Cicero/subscriber /content/Books/Book-7/L09- Videos/Slavery_DrSteveNewton/ playlist.flv.xml –“Abolition” –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/navigate/CiceroMoviePlaye r.do?filename=/Cicero/subscriber /content/Books/Book-7/L09- Videos/Abolition_DrSteveNewto n/playlist.flv.xml

25 Poiltical Cartoons –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/ Cicero/navigate/UnitContents. do?action=display&bookid=7& chapterid=14http://www2.cicerohistory.com/ Cicero/navigate/UnitContents. do?action=display&bookid=7& chapterid=14 Primary Sources –Underground Railroad – William Still 1857 –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/ Cicero/subscriber/content/Book s/Book-7/L06- PrimarySources/DiaryAndJour nals/07UndergroundRailroad_ WilliamStill_1853.pdf Speeches and Correspondences –Ain’t I A Woman? –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/subscriber/content/Books/B ook-7/L06- PrimarySources/SpeechesAndCo rrespondence/07AintIAWoman_ SojournerTruth_1851.pdfhttp://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/subscriber/content/Books/B ook-7/L06- PrimarySources/SpeechesAndCo rrespondence/07AintIAWoman_ SojournerTruth_1851.pdf –What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? –http://www2.cicerohistory.com/C icero/subscriber/content/Books/B ook-7/L06- PrimarySources/SpeechesAndCo rrespondence/08WhatToTheSlav eIsTheFourthOfJuly_FrederickD ouglass_1852.pdf

26 Using Images to Analyze Point of View and Present Multiple Perspectives

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30 Adapting Image Analysis to Your Classroom How might you use image analysis in your social studies classroom? What adaptations would you make? What might be some contemporary connections?

31 Connections to Today There are more slaves today than were seized from Africa in four centuries of the trans- Atlantic slave trade. The modern commerce in humans rivals illegal drug trafficking in its global reach—and in the destruction of lives Modern day slavery is not usually associated with the West - but tens of thousands of women are trafficked there every year as sex workers and forced laborers.

32 The problem received worldwide attention earlier this year when nineteen Chinese laborers were drowned in the rising waters as they picked cockles in Morecambe Bay in the northwest of England. They were being paid the equivalent of less than $2 a day. Others come from Eastern Europe. Ivana, a Ukrainian woman in her early 20s, talks about how a job she took as a waitress in Greece turned into something more sinister - and she found herself forced into prostitution in Birmingham, in the English Midlands. And one trafficker, now in hiding, reveals how he used to kidnap babies as young as 18 months and transport them through Europe.

33 Extension Activities Analysis of images can be springboards for other content area literacy activities. –Elementary and Middle/ Making Images Come Alive Provide the historical context of the image. Project the image and have students discuss the photographer’s message and how the image represents this message. Reproduce the image with dialogue boxes. Choose one character and model an historically accurate voice. Have students work in groups to create dialogue for the remaining characters in the image.

34 –All Levels/ Giving the Image a Voice Have students choose one character and write a speech, poem or journal entry in that person’s voice. Have students choose one character and interview him or her. Have students build on the dialogue boxes and create an historically accurate conversation between or among the characters. Have a group of students create a tableaux where they recreate the image and step into the shoes of the characters.

35 –Middle and High/ Creating a New Perspective Project several images of an historical person from the time period. Have students work in groups to generate a list of characteristics of that person based on the images. Read and analyze a famous speech by the person. Have students compare their thoughts on the individual as portrayed in the image and his or her words in the document. Evaluate whether or not the person’s words coincided with the artist’s portrayal.

36 Compare the 1943 images of Stalin to his reply to Churchill,1946

37 Final Thoughts Visual literacy supports students in making meaning of historical events and people. It supports students who struggle to read and understand text. It engages students in the study of history as students are increasingly familiar with visual images. It supports critical thinking skills. It provides an entry point into the study of history.

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