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2000 United Nations definition:  The action of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons  By means of the threat or use.

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Presentation on theme: "2000 United Nations definition:  The action of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons  By means of the threat or use."— Presentation transcript:


2 2000 United Nations definition:  The action of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons  By means of the threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payment or benefits to a person in control of the victim  For the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery or similar practices, and the removal of organs


4  Forced Labour  Sexual Slavery  Bonded Labour  Involuntary Domestic Servitude  Child Soldiers

5  80% of trafficking victims are women and 50% are children.  It is estimated between 800,000 - 2,000,000 women and young children are trafficked and sold as sex slaves each year.  Illegal profits from trafficking of human beings now estimated to amount to $32 billion annually. This is more than the combined annual profits of Google, Nike, and Starbucks combined.

6  Speaks little/no English or French;  Originates from foreign countries;  Is unaware of local surroundings even though he/she has been in the area for an extended period of time;  Evidence of control, intimidation or abnormal psychological fear;  Evidence of an inability to move or leave job;  Bruises or other signs of battering;  Malnutrition;  Is accompanied by the trafficker.

7 The victims may:  Not self-identify as victims of human trafficking. Victims may not appear to need social services because they have a place to live, food to eat, medical care and what they think is a paying job;  Be taught to distrust outsiders, especially law enforcement. They have a sense of fear and distrust toward the government and police because they are afraid they will be deported;  Feel better in their current situation than where they came from, even if they are being exploited;  Be completely unaware of their rights or may have been intentionally misinformed about their rights in our country;  Fear for their families in their home countries. Some traffickers threaten that they will harm their families if they report their situations to, or cooperate with, law enforcement.

8  United Kingdom - Up to 1,420 women are trafficked into the UK as sex slaves per year.  Netherlands - In Amsterdam, 80% of prostitutes are foreigners, and 70% have no immigration papers, suggesting that they were trafficked.

9  Israel - An estimated 70% of prostituted women in Tel Aviv come from the former Soviet republics, and about 1,000 women are trafficked into Israel illegally each year.  Russia - Estimates are that 20 percent of the five million illegal immigrants in Russia are victims of forced labor, which is a form of trafficking.

10  Ukraine - More than 100,000 Ukrainian women, many of them minors, have been trapped and enslaved as prostitutes in the West.  Thailand - Non-governmental organizations have estimated that up to a third of prostitutes are children under 18, many trafficked from outside Thailand.

11  United States – An estimated 14,500 to 17,500 foreign nationals are trafficked into the United States each year. Internally an estimated 200,000 American children at risk for trafficking into the sex industry.


13  The RCMP estimates the number of trafficked victims per year is 800 however NGO’s estimate the number of trafficked men, women and children to be much higher.  Since 2006, the annual U.S. Trafficking in Persons report has recognized Canada as a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labour.

14 Criminal Intelligence Service of Canada – 2008 Intelligence Brief  A number of organized crime syndicates & family based networks recruit girls to trafficking inter & intra provincially.  Middle class females between ages 12-25 recruited by male peers  Victims controlled by direct (rape, assault) and indirect (threatening family) forms of coercion  Daily earnings off of one victim can range from $300- $1500

15  In January 2008, a woman showed up at a downtown Toronto Police station after escaping her captors. An all too familiar story unfolded of a young woman who was tricked into coming to Canada with the promise of a better life through modeling.  In August 2009, three teenage girls were rescued from an apartment in Gatineau, Qc. One girl was held captive for a year, the other two girls for 6 months and forced to provide sexual services.

16 In just two weeks during 2010:  Oct 10 – Ten people in Hamilton, ON charged with trafficking 19 Hungarians for forced labour.  Oct 14 – Burnaby BC man charged with human trafficking in what police described as a sex slave ring.  Oct 15 – Milton ON man charged with abducting, gang raping and forcing 17 year old girl into prostitution.  Oct 20 – Toronto, ON man charged with luring 17 year old girls into prostitution.  Oct 25 – Kitchener ON man charged with human trafficking.

17  June 2002 – Immigration and Protection Act (IRPA) amended to include human trafficking related offences.  November 2005 – Criminal Code amended to include human trafficking related offences under section 279.01 – 279.04.  May 2006 – Establishment of Temporary Resident Permit for victims of trafficking.  February 22, 2007 – MP Joy Smith’s Motion (153)unanimously passed in the House of Commons condemning the trafficking of women and children for sexual purposes and calling for a national action plan.  March 19, 2007 - The Finance Minister announced in Budget 2007, $6 million annually for law enforcement to assist in protecting children from online sexual exploitation and trafficking.

18  June 19, 2007 - new measures were announced to update the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act. The first new measure extends the temporary resident permit (TRP) from 120 days to 180 days. This was an important recommendation proposed by the Standing Committee of the Status of Women. The second new measure allows victims of human trafficking to apply for resident and work permits and waives the usual fees of $200 and $150 respectively.

19  In 2008 – the federal government raised age of protection from 14 years to 16 years of age.  January 2009 - the federal government announced partnership with Crime Stoppers to launch a national hotline for human trafficking.  September 2010 – federal government announced a further partnership with Crimestoppers to launch the Blue Blindfold national awareness campaign.

20  Elected as MP in 2004.  Has worked to combat human trafficking in Canada and abroad for 10 years.  Her Motion 153 (condemned human trafficking and called for national action plan) passed unanimously in the House of Commons in 2007.  Worked with Ministers to make changes to Immigration and Refugee Protection Act to protect victims of trafficking.  Introduced & passed Bill C-268 to toughen sentences for the trafficking of minors.  Introduced a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.  Will be tabling a new Bill on human trafficking in September 2011. Joy Smith Member of Parliament Kildonan – St. Paul

21  On January 29, 2009, MP Joy Smith introduced a Private Members’ Bill that would amend the Criminal Code to include a minimum sentence of five years for cases where the trafficked victims were under the age of eighteen.  Bill C-268, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (minimum sentence for offences involving trafficking of persons under the age of eighteen years). MP Joy Smith debating Bill C-268 in Parliament.

22  Before Bill C-268, Canada had no specific penalties for child trafficking. Imani Nakpangi – Toronto area – received 3 years (credited 13 months for pre-trial time) Michael Lennox Mark - Montreal – received 2 years (credited 2 years for pre-trial time – double credit) Laura Emerson – Ottawa/Gatineau – received 7 years  These sentences represent a monumental failure of our criminal justice system and demands Parliamentary intervention in the form of Bill C-268.  Bill C-268 proposed mandatory minimum sentences for trafficking a minor. 6 year minimum for aggravated cases. 5 year minimum for all other cases. On June 29, 2010, Bill C-268 received Royal Assent and became law. [Section 279.011]

23  In September 2010, MP Joy Smith released “Connecting the Dots”, her proposal for a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.  It included recommendations under the following sections: Prevention Protection Prosecution Partnerships

24 A National Action Plan would:  Improve coordination between federal and provincial governments, NGOs, and law enforcement.  Provide effective strategy to combat trafficking from reserves.  Address factors that lead to trafficking and exploitation, including the demand.  Engage Canadians to assist in combating human trafficking.

25 The Canadian Government has committed to:  Develop and implement a National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking.  Support organizations providing assistance to victims.  Help ensure female immigrants aged 15 to 21 who arrive in Canada alone are not subjected to illegitimate or unsafe work – in cases of individuals at high risk, during their first six months in our country we will provide for regular contact with the Canadian Border Services Agency.

26  Write to your federal, provincial, and local elected representatives asking them to support anti-trafficking initiatives.  Write to the Justice Minister of Canada and Prime Minister of Canada to voice your support of a National Action Plan.  Write a letter to the editor of your local paper or a national paper about human trafficking.  Sign a petition calling for Parliament to amend the Criminal Code to criminalize the demand for sex trafficking.  Talk to others about human trafficking and encourage them to make their voice heard.

27  Support organizations fighting against human trafficking in Canada and abroad: Salvation Army International Justice Mission Canada Ratanak International Walk With Me Free-them Canada Fights Human Trafficking Cdn. Crime Stoppers ‘Blue Blindfold Campaign’ Not For Sale Campaign

28 For more information about how you can combat human trafficking in Canada, contact MP Joy Smith: Joy Smith, M.P. 310 Justice Building House of Commons Ottawa, ON K1A 0A6 Phone: (613) 992-7148 Email: Web:

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