New Land! The U.S. gets 500,000 miles from winning the Mexican American War. The North and South debate on what land should be free or slave land. What to do?????
Wilmot Proviso: NO SLAVERY IN ANY NEW TERRITORY!!! North-controlled House passes, but Southern Congress said NO! Problem: favoring the interest of one section over the interests of the entire country or Sectionalism was growing!
New Politics A new political party emerged to support anti- slavery- The Free Soil Party.
The California Question Mexican American War brings U.S. new land! ______ brings thousands of people to California. Instead of being a U.S. territory, California petitions to be a state. Would it be a free or slave state? Either way the balance of power is upset.
Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay says, “Let’s do this…” 1.California enters as a free state! 2.Other territory would be federal law and popular sovereignty would decide on free or slavery. (Utah/New Mexico) popular sovereignty=The people decide/vote to allow or ban slavery.
Compromise of 1850 3. Slave trade ends in nation’s capital. (slavery is still ok) 4. Stronger fugitive slave laws would be passed.
Fugitive Slave Laws The new laws made it a: 1. Crime to help runaway slaves. 2. Allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas. Slaveholders could testify in court, slaves could not. Those caught helping faced 6 mo. in jail/$1000 fine. Commissioners who rejected a slaveholder’s claim received $5.00 per case, but those who returned slaves received $10.00 per case.
Reactions Immediate federal action-slaves are quickly sought. Thousands of freed slaves rushed to Canada. Northerners were angry with the abuse of power and no trial without a jury. New abolitionists came to support the cause.
Abraham Lincoln to Harriet Beecher Stowe, “So you’re the little lady who made this big war.” Uncle Tom’s Cabin Uncle Tom’s Cabin-exposed the cruelty of slavery. In 10 years it sold 2 million copies. The South became enraged, the North electrified!
Let’s Expand the Railroad! Congressman Stephen Douglas supports the idea of expanding the railroad from Chicago to the Pacific Ocean. To do this the unorganized land of the Louisiana Purchase had to become Federal territory. The Missouri Compromise stated this territory was to be free. Southerners wanted the railroad to run from New Orleans to the Pacific Ocean. Douglas got his way, but agreed Missouri could be opened to slavery.
Two New Territories Douglas’s bill divided the Louisiana Purchase into two territories—Kansas and Nebraska –People decide on free/slave. Would allow people in each territory to decide on slavery. Would eliminate the Missouri Compromise’s restriction on slavery north of the 36°30’ line Northern Free-Soilers (Anti-slavery political group) outraged that free territory could be turned into slave territory. Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1854 with southern support
Kansas Divided Pro-Slavery and Anti-Slavery groups rushed to Kansas. Two governments arose
The Sack of Lawrence Two governments cause major conflicts! Kansas 1856: a pro-slavery grand jury in Kansas charged the anti-slavery government with treason. 800 men rode into the city of Lawrence to arrest the leaders-who had all fled. The 800 set fires, looted buildings and destroyed anti-slavery printing presses. One man was killed.
John Brown’s Response Abolitionist John Brown believed God called him to end slavery. The Sack on Lawrence convinced him to, “fight fire with fire.” On the night of May 24, 1856 Brown and his men killed 5 pro-slavery men along the Pottawatomie river. (The Pottawatomie Massacre)
24 Discussion Question (Don’t write!! Just think!) Was the Civil War inevitable at this point? ?
Political Divisions A new party arrives: Whigs, Democrats, Free- Soilers and abolitionists joined the Republican Party. Goal: Unite against Slavery! John C. Fremont chosen to run president.
Political Divisions Democratic Party show support for Kansas- Nebraska Act and mostly pro-slavery. Chose strong politician James Buchanan for presidential nomination. Buchanan won 1856 election. Some say Buchanan was the worst president ever to serve.
The Ruling! Supreme Court rules issued by Roger B. Taney (from a southern slaveholding family) wrote the majority opinion stating: 1) slaves are not citizens so cannot sue 2) slaves are property so can be brought to any state 3) Declared the Missouri Compromise-36’30 line unconstitutional- so slavery could exist anywhere. 4) African Americans were NOT citizens. Effect Northern turn more to abolitionism Southerners begin to worry when North seems bound to violate the Supreme Court and Constitution!
Good News For Dred Scott Following the Supreme Court ruling in his case, Scott and his family were brought by Henry Blow, who freed them. Scott worked as a hotel porter in St. Louis until his death in 1858.
Abraham Lincoln Illinois lawyer Abraham Lincoln is angered by the Dredd Scott Ruling and is vocal about it. Illinois Republicans nominated Lincoln for the U.S. Senate in 1858. His opponent was Democrat Stephen Douglas, who had been senator since 1847. Lincoln challenged Douglas to what became the historic Lincoln-Douglas debates.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln stressed that central issue of campaign was spread of slavery in the West Douglas criticized Lincoln for saying nation could not remain “half slave and half free” Douglas put forth Freeport Doctrine: people had right to introduce or exclude slavery, and police would enforce their decision even if it contradicted the Supreme Court Freeport Doctrine helped Douglas win
1860 Presidential Election! Who are the players? Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas. Southern Democrats, Vice President John C. Breckinridge. The Constitutional Union Party selected John Bell of Tennessee. Republicans nominated Lincoln, who won with most votes of the free states. Lincoln promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed. The result angered southerners. Lincoln had not campaigned in the South or carried any southern states in the election.
Lincoln Lincoln insisted he would not change slavery in South, but would not let it expand! People in South believed that their economy and way of life would be destroyed South Carolina legislature met and formally seceded from the Union. South Carolina seceded, believing it had the right because it had voluntarily joined the Union
Secession! Following South Carolina’s secession, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined to form The Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis of Mississippi elected Confederate president.
John Brown Continues His Attack on Slavery. Abolitionist John Brown tried to start uprising in 1858 – Planned to arm local slaves by attacking federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Raid on Harper’s Ferry John Brown’s raid began on night of October 16, 1859, when he, his 5 sons, and his men took over the arsenal. He could not get slaves to join uprising. Quickly federal troops captured Brown and his men in attack on arsenal. Brown was convicted of treason, murder, and conspiracy, and was hanged. – Many northerners mourned his death, but criticized methods. – Most southern whites felt threatened, and newspapers started to call for leaving the Union in order to remain safe.