Presentation on theme: "Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery 1. Trafficking in persons is the 2nd largest criminal activity in the world, following illegal drugs Just in front."— Presentation transcript:
Trafficking in persons is the 2nd largest criminal activity in the world, following illegal drugs Just in front of illegal arms Human trafficking is a violation of human rights; linked to organized crime and further undermines our peacekeeping efforts 2
Who is Responsible? 3 It is not just the people who operate the trafficking enterprise but also their customers Contractors Governments Civilians Military Personnel
What is Trafficking The United Nations defines trafficking as: “Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons. By means of the threat, use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse or exploitation” Holding and/or transporting people against their will Forcing people into servitude through violence and/or deception Buying or selling human beings Supporting the above by hiring forced prostitutes or patronizing forced labor establishments 4
The Victims Most victims are women and children who have been: Kidnapped Tricked Coerced/Forced Sold by their families 5 Photo Credit: DOD JCCC
Circumstances Leading to Victimization Poverty War Lack of safety nets Low status within family Ill informed families sell their children 6
Perpetrators 7 Lying to victims about future employment, travel, living conditions or treatment Promises of valid immigration and travel documents Threat of harm to the victim and the victim’s family Involving victims in additional criminal activities Moving victims around on a circuit of workplaces or brothels
Who Are the Perpetrators? International organized crime Small trafficking groups that specialize in one specific country Individual freelancers 8
Types of Trafficking Sexual exploitation Forced labor Child soldiers Indentured servants Refugees Migrants 9 Photo Credit: DOD JCCC
Aspects of Globalisation Globalisation as westernisation or modernisation: the social structures of modernity (capitalism, rationalism, bureaucratism, etc.) are spread the world over, normally destroying pre-existent cultures and local self- determination Globalisation as liberalisation: Removing government-imposed restrictions in order to create an open, borderless world economy Globalisation as universalisation: Spreading various objects and experiences to people at all corners of the earth. Internet, Sushi, Baywatch, human rights Globalisation as de-territorialisation: reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders
What is Globalised? Economy Technology Politics Culture Law People
Debates on globalisation: Globalisation isn’t happening: We’ve seen all this before, not so revolutionary, states still in charge Globalisation is good : Global trade benefits all, global norms defeat local bullies, global contacts breed nice people Globalisation is bad : Globalisation increases inequalities, destroys local cultures, destroys the environment, undermines democratic accountability
Globalisation of: SupportersRejectersReformers EconomyYes: As part of economic liberalism No: Greater protection of national economies Mixed: If leading to greater social equality TechnologyYes: Open competition for techno- logical innovation No: Threatens local com- munities Mixed: If beneficial to the marginalised LawYes: Commercial law and human rights No: Undermines national sovereignty Yes: Building global rule of law PeopleYes: Open border policy No: Undermines national cohesion Yes: Open border policy
Why did Globalisation Occur? New technology enabled global communications, global financial flows, cheap transport End of Cold War, allowed global cooperation and global trade IMF and World Bank increase development
Deeper causes of globalisation: 1960-70s peak of nation state – two reactions: - New Social Movements, from 1968, incl. Peace, Human Rights, Women, Environment - Neo-liberalism, 1980s, retreat of state. IMF/World Bank
Transnational advocacy networks: Promote causes, principled ideas and norms that cannot be reduced to self-interest May include NGOs, local social movements, foundations, media, churches, trade unions, consumer organisations, intellectuals, parts of IGOs, civil servants, politicians Work through information politics, symbolic politics, leverage politics, accountability politics (Keck and Sikkink, 1998)
Global civil society? “Global civil society is the sphere of ideas, institutions, organisations, networks and individuals located between the family, the state and the market, and operating beyond the confines of national societies, polities and economies.”
It is not just civil society organisations, individuals, networks working at the global level But rather, the whole of organisations,individuals, networks with transnational elements in their line of work, partners and networks, or ideology
The normative connotations of civil society: Trust, social capital Active citizens in public affairs Non-violent and resisting violence Fostering public debate Counter-hegemonic: challenging the powerful; championing the marginalised
Being part of a global imagined community, a sense of connection Belief in human rights, global social justice rather than just civil rights, justice for own citizens Belief in global and shared responsibility for the environment, ‘One World’ solutions, ‘global governance’ Challenging the winners, championing the losers, of globalisation
Before Globalisation: S M controls CS S M controls CS Country 1Country 2
S S Market Civil society Retreat of the State. A combination of globalisation, privatisation, NGO-isation.: Country 1 Country 2 Control?
Some Figures: Number of INGOs 1981 1991 2001 9,789 17,826 24,797 Revenues of Relief and Development INGOs $ bln 198019881999 Public 126.96.36.199 Private3.64.510.7 Total5.26.912.4. NGOs with UN consultative status 1945196519852005 03617602,595.
Globalisation has changed the organisational environment for NGOs. New Opportunities: Retreat of states and decline of party politics Expanded private and institutional donations Major reductions in communication costs More democracy, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly.
New problems: External: More complex and diverse cultural, political and economic environment Relations with diverse constituencies and stake-holders Managing different legal and fiscal systems Complex international funding environment Internal: Transnational governance structure must be clear on responsibilities, line management and enforcement Need to develop a common mission and language within the organisation Structure that remains accountable to dispersed membership and reflects diversity
Different Solutions Member consultation: One vote per member (Amnesty) One vote per country (FOEI) Headquarters: Move to South (Civicus, ActionAid) Split HQ (World Rainforest Movement) Ring structure (Panos) Boards More Southern and female (ActionAid) Regional sub-boards (HRW) Forms of organisation Unitary organisation (HRW) Partnerships (Christian Aid) Federations (IFRC) Confederations (Oxfam Int) Networks (YES!)
1990s move from service-delivery to advocacy: Macro-explanations: Political party activism declines, decision-making power seeps away from national level development encounters international politics Micro-explanations: NGO staff increasingly frustrated by lack of macro- impact of their work on development Northern NGOs need new role: capacity-building and advocacy
‘advocate: an intercessor or defender: one who pleads the cause of another’ ‘advocacy: the function of an advocate; a pleading for’ ‘advocates plead the cause of others or defend a cause or proposition’
What can be the basis for NGO advocacy? - representation - moral conviction (values) - experience/expertise
Representation: speaking for Problems: constituency procedure time money
Some solutions: - transparency about procedures or absence of - networks -accompaniment Deeper problem: What does it mean to ‘represent’? To speak ‘on behalf of?
Vulnerability Climate Change: Global warming and everything which effects increased greenhouse gases Leads to flooding, drought, dramatics increases in heat and cold, natural disasters Climate change disproportionately effects developing countries
73% of disasters reported since 1900 were climate related GDP growth in Mozambique dropped from 8% (1999) to 2% (2000) post cyclone. >1/4 of Africa’s population lives within 100km of the coast. Numbers at risk from coastal flooding to rise from 1m in 1990 to 70m in 2080
Adaptive Capacity Capability to adapt Function of: – Wealth – Technology – Education – Institutions – Information – Infrastructure – “Social capital” Having adaptive capacity does not mean it is used effectively
Climate Change & Poverty Disproportionate negative impact on poor 94% of disasters and 97% of natural disaster related deaths occur in developing countries Annual costs of natural disasters estimated at $55billion Economic damages are greatest in developed countries, e.g. total economic impact of Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana and Mississippi may exceed $150 billion Climate Change impact is a structural factor that will exacerbate inequality and thwart p growth Dependent on climate sensitive sectors
Socioeconomic impacts small increases of temperature will prompt food prices to increase due to a slowing in the expansion of global food supply relative to growth in global food demand Climate change will lower incomes of the vulnerable populations and increase the absolute number of people at risk of hunger What would the impacts be in a already fragile society of mass starvation? Climate refugees? How would the rich world react? Especially if it was also struggling with the negative effects of climate change?
Impact on Human Development and the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) Biophysical effects associated with climate change will in turn impact on human development and the achievement and sustainability of MDGs – MDGs 4,5,6 (health): Incidence of Cholera increased 6-fold in Nicaragua following flooding as a result of Hurricane Mitch – MDG2 (education): In Bihar India, annual flooding shuts schools across the state for 3 months. – MDG3 (gender): 90% of victims in 1991 Bangladesh cyclone were women and children. – MDG7 (environment): 1997 El Niño killed up to 80% of livestock in Somalia and Kenya.
44 Agriculture and Climate Change GDP from agriculture:34%, 1994 42%, 1980 Area under agriculture: 50%, 760 mha Dependent population: 70% Average farm size:1 to 5 ha Landless dependent on others 2.5 o to 4.9 o C increase with -20% drop in precipitation rice yield - 15% to - 42% wheat yield - 25% to - 55% 2-3.5°C increase in temperature in India could reduce farm net revenues by 9 – 25% Indian Agriculture Source: Parikh J and Kavi Kumar
Sea Level Rise Indian subcontinent Bangladesh Displaced 13 million 16% of national rice production lost India Displace 7 million, est. cost $Bn 230 inundate 1700 km2 agricultural land necessitate 4000 km of dykes and sea walls submerge 576 km2 total land & 4200 km of roads
Mitigation in Developing Countries China, India, Brazil & South Africa, will become major GHG emitters in the next 20-30 years, overtaking the US in China’s case Mitigation of GHGs poses a fundamental equity problem: total emissions must decrease but developing country share of emissions will need to increase Obstacles: – Political risks: domestic (government interference), international (no price for carbon if no +2012 framework) – Price gap between low carbon technologies and Business As Usual (more coal plants) – Price of carbon too low to incentivise action – Price of access to clean technology Intellectual Property Rights (wind turbines)
15 September 2006IEF climate conference48 Every year China builds 60 gigawatts of power-generation capacity, almost as much as Britain's entire existing capacity. Four-fifths of Chinese power is generated by coal, the dirtiest source of electricity. China currently uses 40% of the world's coal—more than America, Europe and Japan put together.
Conclusions Warming of 2°C threatens many tens of millions with increased risk of hunger, hundreds of millions with increased Malaria risk, millions with increased flooding and billions with risk of water shortage. – All these threats most severe for developing countries and poor people everywhere Warming of 2°C risks major ice sheet responses with commitments to many metres of sea level rise. At least 1m by 2100, could be much more later – Ensuing sea level rise threatens large populations everywhere and particularly in developing countries Warming of 2°C threatens major ecosystems from the Arctic and Antarctic to the tropics – Loss of forests and species will affect the lives of all with economic costs falling disproportionately on the poor and developing countries