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Trans-Atlantic African Slavery Expansion. Launching of Trans-Atlantic Slavery Demographic Collapse of Amerindian Populations Decline of Malian Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "Trans-Atlantic African Slavery Expansion. Launching of Trans-Atlantic Slavery Demographic Collapse of Amerindian Populations Decline of Malian Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Trans-Atlantic African Slavery Expansion

2 Launching of Trans-Atlantic Slavery Demographic Collapse of Amerindian Populations Decline of Malian Empire & Warring States Expansion of Sugar Industry into the Americas Expansion of Joint Stock Companies and Imperial Rivalry

3 Birth of Trans Atlantic African Slavery Earliest shipment of Slaves from Spain to Americas (1501) Middle Passage (1518) – Journey from Africa to the Americas 1/3 of those enslaved died en route Conditions, disease, malnourishment, suicide, infanticide 20% children, Majority Male 1530 full scale enterprise in Brazil

4 Unrestrained Exploitation one-third of newly arrived Africans in the West Indies died within three years, while life expectancy was reduced to less than fifteen years. Sugar revolution led to replacement of white slaves with African slaves – Racial Caste system created – Legal institution – Inherited condition

5 Unsustainable populations Jamaica: 1700 and 1787 imported some 610,000 Africans (only 250,000 lived in 1787) St Domingue, (Haiti): imported 800,000 Africans (but only 300,000 lived by 1776) Barbados: 1640 and 1807 imported 387,000 Africans between (only 75,000 lived by abolition)

6 Fort Jesus at Mombasa © William J. Duiker

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8 Restructuring of African Enslavement Raiding to “Trading” – Traditionally enslaved peoples were those captured in war or had inherited their status European demand increased, – Moved to Senegambian Region – local African slave traders began moving inland and kidnapping people from villages. – African Intermediaries (private merchants, local elites and trading state monopolies) active in acquiring more enslaved peoples, dictating price, volume and availability of slaves to European purchasers)

9 Gore’e off the coast of Senegal, near Cape Verde was a gateway to slavery. 12 million Africans were shipped to all parts of the world by the Portuguese, Dutch, British and French © William J. Duiker

10 The sign by the doorway reads, ‘‘From this door, they would embark on a voyage with no return, eyes fixed on an infinity of suffering.’’ Sugar cultivation throughout the Americas fueled the rise of the European Trans Atlantic Chattel slavery system © William J. Duiker

11 Growth of Slavery 16 th C 275,000 people exported, 2/3 to the Americas » 1,000/year to colonies 17 th C >million people exported » 20,000/year to Colonies 18 th C >6 million people exported » 60,000/year to Colonies/America – 16 Th C – 19 Th C 21 million taken » 12 million people exported

12 17 th C The Slave Trade routes

13 European “New World” Chattel Slavery Endless toil to produce staple crops Shifted to Primarily African enslavement Inherited position Chattel conditions Inhumane status, rape & torture – Rulers of the Congo & Christian Kingdom of Benin – tried to end cruelty of European enslavement became victims when they began to protest the trade

14 Impact of African Enslavement Depopulation in some regions: – modern day Angola and East Africa Political and Social Structures on a changing continent: – Western economic penetration of Africa – dislocating effects: – Importation of manufactured goods from Europe undermined the foundations of local cottage industries and impoverished families

15 Impact in African Society Demand for slaves and introduction of firearms intensified political instability and civil strife – Weakening of Songhai trade empire and eventual conquest by Morocco – Competition and civil strife between introduced religions Islam and later Christianity and traditional traditions In West Africa: decline and collapse of Mwene Metapa

16 The Rise of the West Imperial Rivalries for control of the Spice trade: Portuguese, Spain, Dutch, English and French Dutch East India Company consolidated military and political power over spice trade in Indonesia by 18 th C – Burma, Thailand & Vietnam Resisted encroachment

17 A French Pepper Plantation Southern India One of the most sought after spices found in Asia and Indonesia © The Art Archive/Bibliothe`que Nationale, Paris

18 Origins of Racism? the guardians and fabricators of European conscience had invoked racist theology and philosophy to moralize the trade by equating the "Negro" or "Ethiopian" with sin and slavery. The early construction of the "Negro" stereotype in Judea­ Christianity (necessary to dehuman­ize and demonize to justify enslavement) – Greco-Roman & Mesopotamian Jewish writers during the 2-6 th CE began the devaluation of African humanity – Context of expansion into northern Africa & tans- Saharan network

19 Role of Catholic Church Pope Nicholas V ( ) He borrowed or reconstructed the Talmudic "curse" - recasting "Ethiopians" as a "children of Satan". In 1488, the king of Spain sent a present to Pope Innocent VIII comprising 100 "Moors" whom the latter distributed to his favorite Cardinals and other Italian nobility French Cardinal Bossouet, who defended the trade and slavery, contending that to abolish slavery would be "to condemn the Holy Spirit who by the mouth of St. Paul orders slaves to remain in their state".46

20 Imperial Rivalries Imperial challenges to Portugal – Spain acquired the Philippines following the voyages of Ferdinand Magellan in 1529 – England sent the first expedition to the Indies in the (English) East Indian Company Began expanding Influence – Dutch arrived in Indian established the Dutch East India Company Challenged Portuguese and English possessions

21 A French Pepper Plantation Southern India One of the most sought after spices found in Asia and Indonesia © The Art Archive/Bibliothe`que Nationale, Paris

22 Dutch in South Africa Dutch arrived in South Africa – 1652 established a way station a the Cape of Good Hope Base for fleets in Route to the East Indies Dutch Boers – Afrikaans dialect – Threatened African and Portuguese control Hegemony until 1992

23 Scientific Racism 1750s onward, science began to displace religion as the foundation of knowledge. Scientific racism reinforced myth of African Intellectual inferiority

24 What factors allowed Europeans to Expand Mercantile Capitalism? Technology – Improvements in Navigation, Ship building, Weaponry Based on earlier achievements of china, India and the middle east Rise of philosophy of European Mrecantile Capitalism – Desire for unfettered economic gain Religious Zeal, political conflict between Christendom & Islam Europe’s Political stability, sources of Capital & modernizing elite


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