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 Middle Passage  Portuguese=32%  Dutch=7&  Spanish=13%  British Caribbean=24%  French Car. =17%  British Colonies =4%

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Presentation on theme: " Middle Passage  Portuguese=32%  Dutch=7&  Spanish=13%  British Caribbean=24%  French Car. =17%  British Colonies =4%"— Presentation transcript:

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2  Middle Passage  Portuguese=32%  Dutch=7&  Spanish=13%  British Caribbean=24%  French Car. =17%  British Colonies =4%

3  = 90 to 100,000 slaves traded  Monopoly on slave trade  1689 British Parliament opened slave trade  Slave trade increased from 5,000 to 20,000/year

4  Sugar, Rice, Tobacco, Coffee, Indigo were labor intensive  Atlantic transactions consisted of raw material to Europe, manufactured good to Americas and Africa, and slaves to N. America

5  Tobacco based  Late 1600s  Virginia & Maryland slavery laws  Slaves were nearly half of the population by 1770  Fulfilled a variety of labor demands  Mercantilism  Strong social hierarchies

6  Initial Indian slave trade w/ Caribbean  Even a few African born black slaves were armed for defense against Indian attacks  However, by /3 of S. Carolina’s pop. was black

7  Rice and Indigo Ironically, rice was introduced by Africans Rice plantations demanded more slaves that tobacco “task system” = daily jobs and leisure time Self-administering due to malaria By 1770 there were 100,000 black slaves in S. Carolina

8  Originally banned alcohol and slaves  1751 shift from proprietary colony to royal colony  By 1770 moving same direction as S. Carolina

9  Unusual to own more than one slave  Laws were less harsh Could own property and pass it on File suits against whites Physical brutality was illegal Why?

10  NYC exception  Originated with Dutch  1/5 total population  Due to high involvement in slave trade

11  Approx 300,000 from diverse cultures  Only ‘bond’ or similarity was slavery  1700s most were African by birth and spoke their own langauge  By 1800s identity became A.A. rather than Ibo, Ashanti, Yoruba, etc…)

12  3 systems = distinct cultures  Chesapeake: family-centered, maintained slave population via reproduction Small farms = exposure to white culture/religion

13  South: Rice plantations= extremely harsh Dependent on slave trade due to low birthrate. Less contact w/ whites and more autonomy Maintained African traditions  South: Savannah & Charleston Servants and skilled workers mixed with white population quickly Mulattos

14  Northern Colonies Few and far between More mobility and access to European life Gathered holidays


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