Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism. When George Washington left the Presidency, he gave a speech warning Americans against THREE DANGERS… 1. Foreign alliances… 2. Political."— Presentation transcript:
When George Washington left the Presidency, he gave a speech warning Americans against THREE DANGERS… 1. Foreign alliances… 2. Political parties… 3. Sectionalism. When discussing the dangers of sectionalism, he EMPHASIZED the importance of UNITY BETWEEN THE STATES… And worried about DISTRUST between different regions of the country.
Sectionalism By the beginning of the 1800’s, the nation was beginning to take the form that George Washington had warned against… By 1804, all states north of Maryland had ended slavery… And the economies of Maryland and every other Southern state were ENTIRELY dependent upon slavery. The United States had come to resemble TWO separate nations.
By the beginning of the 1800's, George Washington's fears about American SECTIONALISM had... A.) caused the outbreak of the civil war. B.) largely come true. C.) turned out to be unnecessary. D.) ended slavery in the South.
The North Due to industrialization (the growth of industry) most people in the NE lived in urban areas. Most new towns grew up around factories. These factories provided the nation with most of its MANUFACTURED products. Northern workers lived in tenements—crowded apartment buildings of terrible quality. Sanitation, plumbing and safety standards were nonexistent.
The South In 1820, the south was still very rural. The economy was based on the plantation system. “King Cotton” ruled. The south was dependent on northern industry. Large and small farms depended on slavery. Plantation life was incredibly harsh for slaves. Life was much better for slaves on small farms.
Which of the following is the BEST description of the respective economies of the North and the South? A.) the South produced manufactured goods; the North was involved in importing and exporting. B.) the North produced manufactured goods; the South focused on agriculture. C.) the South exported raw materials to Europe; the North focused on agriculture. D.) the South produced manufactured goods; the North was involved in shipping and exploration.
Northern Views on Slavery By the 1850’s, many white Northerners had come to believe that slavery was a violation of American ideals and Christianity. Northern churches taught that EVERY human had the right to choose their own destiny. Slavery—for them—was an “evil that must not be tolerated”. However, most Northerners still believed in the basic inequality of blacks… Which is why the colony of Liberia was established.
Southern Views on Slavery Southerners think Northern criticism of slavery is insulting and untrue. Plantation households—they say—are like big, happy families. Planters take a personal interest in the well-being of their slaves while… Northern factory owners take no responsibility for their workers. Workers in the north often cannot buy decent food, clothing or shelter. “Cannibals All!”—a book attacking northern industrialists for being “no better than cannibals.
“Attention paid a poor sick white man” “Attention paid a poor sick negro”.
How did Southern plantation owners JUSTIFY their use of slave labor? A.) they claimed it was necessary in order to compete with the Europeans. B.) they claimed that slavery was supported by Thomas Jefferson. C.) they claimed that they treated slaves better than Northern factory owners treated their workers. D.) they insisted that slavery was necessary to hold the union together.
North-South Religious Tensions Some southern churches claimed the Bible supported slavery… Exodus 21:20-21 “And if a man strike his servant with a rod and he die under his hand, he shall be severely punished. Notwithstanding, if he recovers in a day or two, he shall not be punished for he is his property”. When the Methodist Church demanded that all southern bishops free their slaves… Churches began to splinter along north/south lines… The Southern Methodists and the Southern Baptists form; Both endorse slavery.
Turner’s Rebellion Led by Nat Turner, a 31 year-old slave from Virginia… Who received a vision from God… That he had been chosen to lead a slave UPRISING in the United States… His plan was to attack a plantation… Kill the white people… Free the slaves and provide them with weapons… Attack another plantation…and so on. He eventually killed 60 white men, women and children… Before being captured by a white militia and hanged.
The Results of Turner’s Rebellion White southerners were HORRIFIED and TERRIFIED… And the rebellion led a harsh crackdown on the slave population. Because Turner had been taught to read and write… And had gained much of his inspiration from the Bible… It became ILLEGAL to teach slaves to read and write… Slaves were also henceforth prohibited from TRAVELING… And black preachers were SILENCED.
The long term effect of Turner's Rebellion was that… A.) slaves began to receive better treatment. B.) slaves began to receive harsher treatment. C.) slavery began to spread throughout the South. D.) the number of slaves in the South began to decrease.
In 1819, Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state. Slavery was illegal NORTH of the Ohio River…but Missouri was WEST of the Ohio River… At the time, the Senate was divided 50-50 between free states and slave states… The North refused to consider the admission of another SLAVE STATE… The South refused to consider the admission of another FREE STATE… Everybody agreed that the Union should expand…but NOBODY agreed on how to solve this conflict.
The Missouri Compromise Was Developed by Henry Clay, signed into law in 1820. Slavery was permitted in Missouri… Maine was carved out of northern Massachusetts and admitted as a free state. The balance was kept between FREE and SLAVE states… And a NEW LINE is drawn across the United States: All new states north of 36-30 latitude would be free… States south of that line would be slave states.
The Missouri Compromise set a PRECEDENT (an example to followed in the future) for nearly 30 years after its ratification. What do you think it was? A.) slave states always outnumbered free states after the Missouri Compromise. B.) the admission of a slave state ALWAYS accompanied the admission of a free state and vice versa. C.) whenever a controversy arose over statehood, the matter was settled by the US Supreme Court. D.) after the Missouri Compromise, new states were always formed from pieces of existing states.
The First Crisis In 1828, Congress passed a huge new tariff (a tax on imports). At the time, the Southern states manufactured almost nothing… So in order to purchase finished goods like tools and clothing… They could either buy them from the North, or have them imported. The new tariff made imports OUTRAGEOUSLY expensive… So now their only source for those things was from the North. But now that international competition had been eliminated, what do you think northern manufacturers did with their prices? They RAISED them, infuriating Southern consumers.
When the tariff was passed… Andrew Jackson’s Vice President, John C. Calhoun, resigned in protest and became a Senator for South Carolina… And with his leadership, the South Carolina legislature NULLIFIED the tariff… And threatened to SECEDE (leave) from the Union if the federal government used the military to FORCE South Carolina to obey the law.
Which group of people was MOST LIKELY to support the Tariff of 1828? A.) Northern manufacturers. B.) Southern manufacturers. C.) Southern slave-owners. D.) Northern importers.
Secession? When South Carolina threatened to secede, Jackson said… “Disunion by armed force is TREASON”… And threatened to hang every member of the South Carolina legislature. “I can have within the limits of South Carolina fifty thousand men…the Union WILL BE PRESERVED”. In March of 1833, Congress reduced the tariff and South Carolina backed off. But the issue had been POSTPONED, rather than RESOLVED.
Why were Southerners so opposed to the Tariff of 1828? A.) the tariff forced them to purchase manufactured goods from Europe. B.) the tariff threatened the existence of slavery in the border states. C.) the tariff was unconstitutional. D.) the tariff caused the price of manufactured goods to skyrocket.