Presentation on theme: "Slavery The Crisis Deepens. Crisis In the 1850’s there was increasing division between the north and the south, as a result of their conflicting views."— Presentation transcript:
Crisis In the 1850’s there was increasing division between the north and the south, as a result of their conflicting views on slavery While the North was mostly abolitionist, the South was largely pro-slavery The difference in the beliefs on slavery between the North and South led to great conflict in the United States, ultimately leading to a state of crisis
Dred Scott Decision Scott v. Sandford Argued 1856 decided 1857: 60 U.S. 393 Black slave Dred Scott sued his owner Eliza Sandford for his freedom on the grounds that they had at one time lived in free territory under the Missouri Compromise (which banned slavery north of Missouri’s southern border) Scott was denied his freedom by the Circuit Court, and the decision was appealed to the Supreme Court
Opinion of the Court Part One "And, upon a full and careful consideration of the subject, [p427] the court is of opinion, that, upon the facts stated in the plea in abatement, Dred Scott was not a citizen of Missouri within the meaning of the Constitution of the United States, and not entitled as such to sue in its courts, and consequently that the Circuit Court had no jurisdiction of the case, and that the judgment on the plea in abatement is erroneous."
Opinion of the Court Part Two "And if the Constitution recognizes the right of property of the master in a slave, and makes no distinction between that description of property and other property owned by a citizen, no tribunal, acting under the authority of the United States, whether it be legislative, executive, or judicial, has a right to draw such a distinction or deny to it the benefit of the provisions and guarantees which have been provided for the protection of private property against the encroachments of the Government."
Aftermath This ruling angered abolitionists, but pleased those who were pro-slavery intensifying conflict It was a great step backwards for America because, as previously mentioned, some states had already made steps towards abolishing slavery (Missouri Compromise, though it was repealed before this case) but this ruling deemed the abolition of slavery unconstitutional This decision pleased the pro-slavery south but angered the north, intensifying the conflict between them into crisis The decision was only overturned with the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution (1867, 1857, 1870)
Election of 1856 Republicans John C Fremont Explorer No political record
The Election of 1856 continued... Democrats James Buchanan American Ambassador to Russia and England 20 years in congress
The Election of 1856 continued... The American Party Millard Fillmore Ex-president Party had troubles uniting their delegates
Election Campaign/Results North Republicans vs Democrats Fremont vs Buchanan Democrats successfully promoted Buchanan and influenced against Fremont
Election Campaign Results continued.... South The American Party vs Democrats Fillmore vs Buchanan Buchanan had solid support
Kansas Lecompton Constitution Proslavery vs antislavery forces in Kansas Statehood Constitution created Referendum Senate approved slavery, House of Rep. blocked it Another Referendum Constitution voted down Statehood delayed
Abraham Lincoln Republican Modest Background Gifted Debater Not an abolitionist but heavily opposed slavery
Stephen A. Douglas Democrat Short and chubby Supported popular sovereignty Ran for senate against Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln and Douglas's Debate "Can the people of a territory legally exclude slavery before achieving statehood?" - Abraham Lincoln "Slavery cannot exist...anywhere unless it is supported by local police regulations." - Stephen A. Douglas
John Brown Raid An anti-slavery rebellion made on October 16, 1859 Led by John Brown - an abolitionist - religious - a very strongly-opinionated individual - supported African Americans for the majority of his life
John Brown Raid (continued) Led 18 men on a raid of federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia Only successful in seizing the federal armory and arsenal Ill-planned - no rations, so escape route - within less than 36 hours, raid failed - Brown was surrounded firstly by local militia at Harpers Ferry, then by U.S. Marines - Brown was captured and five days later, found guilty of treason and sentenced to death
Effect of the John Brown Raid Raid itself was not a crisis, as it did not last long and did not create much damage, but it did increase the tension between North America and South America North AmericaSouth America Idolized John Brown Enraged Gained more confidence/motivation Felt threatened and antagonized
Effect of John Brown Raid (continued) A major factor that lead to Civil War "I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood." John Brown brought more awareness and attention to the slavery issue Symbolizes the start of a greater movement for all slaves
The Crisis as a Whole Slaves getting more public recognition, going deeper into the rights and freedom Slave issue is creating an "all or nothing" effect The unity of America is on an even finer line Puts the nation America to question
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