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Slavery in a Land of Freedom TAH Freedom Project 10/13/12

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1 Slavery in a Land of Freedom TAH Freedom Project 10/13/12
Standards & Methods Fran O’Malley Delaware Social Studies Education Project University of Delaware

2 Activity I Whisper Down the Lane. Count off 1-5. #1 is lane leader.
Lane leader reads slave population statistics off of handout to Person 2. Person 2 tells Person 3 what the population statistics were but does not provide the document. Person 3 tells Person 4…until Person 5 hears the statistics. Person 1 records accuracy data (without verbal or visual cues).

3 Literacy Connection Optional Reading

4 Hidden in Plain View

5 Activity II: Create an Underground Railroad Quilt Code
Create a UGRR quilt. Use quilt template, yarn, crayons. Be able to explain how the quilt’s messages.

6 Tools

7 Analyzing Claims    Do you believe that the earth has been visited by aliens from outer space? If someone told you that aliens have visited earth, would that be enough to convince you of alien visitations? Why do you (or do you not) believe that aliens have visited? What evidence do we have that aliens have visited? What evidence would you require to serve as proof of alien visitations? 

8 What is “evidence?” Work in small groups to complete the Frayer Model for the concept of EVIDENCE. Definition: a thing or things that are helpful in forming a conclusion or judgment; or that are used to “prove” something.

9 Circling Round: Whisper Down the Lane
How accurately were the slave population statistics transmitted orally? Would the data on the number of slaves in Delaware from have been more or less accurate if information had been passed down via the document i.e. Resource 1 rather than orally? Should information passed down orally through generations be counted as evidence by historians? Why or why not? Are documents flawless sources of evidence about the past? Explain. Is the quilt code a case of “problematic prior learning (PPL)?”

10 Competing Interpretations: Why?
“Hidden in Plain View, is based on the oral testimony of an elderly lady, In my opinion, this book is a major insult to intelligent people everywhere yet it has been picked up to be shared as "fact" in Social Studies classes across America, instead of the "fiction" that it is. The book does not jibe with what we know about the Underground Railroad and African American history. Most certainly, the depiction of quilt blocks is not in tandem with known quilt and/or quilt block history. Members of the American Quilt Study Group, a group that is comprised of University professors, professional writers/book authors, appraisers, publishers, and many others associated with the quilt world, have privately and publicly condemned this book.” Patricia L. Cummings Self described Quilt Historian/author Amazon Book Reviewer Ms Cummings, I cannot disagree with you more strongly. My paternal great grandmother, my half-brother's grandmother, and my future mother-in-law's family "wrote" stories in the quilts they made. These women who were born between 1842 and To say books like Hidden in Plain View are American myths is just plain wrong and borders being an out-right lie. I personally spoke with my great grand mother and my brother's grand mother about these "story" quilts and received a first hand account. These women were not in their dying moments, they were in their 60's and 70's and were of very sound mind. And just as an additional note, using a quilt to tell a story is not limited to Black history, my maternal great grandmother (from Russia) also used quilts to tell stories and taught me the same way her grandmother taught her. “ Shelley Jeltema Amazon review response

11 PPL Intervention: “Refutational Text”
“Some people believe that slaves and others who assisted with the Underground Railroad used a quilt code to communicate messages to escaping slaves. Perhaps you were one of those believers. Though the idea of a quilt code is very interesting, most historians have concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the claim.”

12 Summarizing Activity Students compose a “museum caption” that can be placed under their quilts that explains the quilt code theory and why it should or should not be considered historically accurate. See handout

13 Potential Research Lesson

14 Standards Addressed History 3a, Gr. 4-5: Students will explain why historical accounts of the same event sometimes differ and relate this explanation to the evidence presented… History 2b, Gr. 6-8: Students will examine historical documents, artifacts, and other materials, and analyze them in terms of credibility… History 2b, Gr. 9-12: Students will examine and analyze primary and secondary sources in order to differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations.

15 Activity 3: The Nature of Slave Life
Work in triads. Review the documents and images in your folders. Use Post-It Poster paper to design a poster that offers a description of slave life based on the documents in your folders. Create a title from the stem “Slave Life Was _________.” Cut and paste images and write quotes from the documents to support your title.

16 Debrief: Competing Accounts
Slaves as objects. Horror remembered. Account 2 Slaves as subjects Better moments remembered. Why might there be different interpretations of slave life?

17 Big Idea Slave as Objects Slaves as Subjects

18 History Standard 3 Interpretation [Grades 4-5]: Students will explain why historical accounts of the same event sometimes differ and relate this explanation to the evidence presented or the point-of-view of the author. Interpretation [Grades 6-8]: Students will compare different historians descriptions of the same societies in order to examine how the choice of questions and use of sources may affect their conclusions. Interpretation [Grades 9-12]: Students will compare competing historical narratives, by contrasting different historians' choice of questions, use and choice of sources, perspectives, beliefs, and points of view, in order to demonstrate how these factors contribute to different interpretations.

19 Attending to Standards
Considering the wrap-around activity with slavery as a context… how might the evidence presented influence the conclusion one arrives at? (Grades 4-5) how might one’s use of sources explain differences in conclusions about slavery? (Grades 6-8) How might one’s choice of sources explain differences in historical interpretations? (Grades 9-12)

20 Slavery trends over time in Delaware
History 1: Chronology Slavery trends over time in Delaware Continuity or change? Why? Slavery trends over time in the United States Continuity or change? Why?

21 Slavery in Delaware over Time
1. Did the slave population in Delaware change or remain the same between 1790 and 1860? [History Standard 1 - continuity v change] 2. Why might Delaware's slave population have changed or remained the same from ? [History Standard 1 - causation]

22 Slavery in the U.S. over Time
1. Did the slave population in the United States change or remain the same between 1790 and 1860? [History Standard 1 - continuity v change] 2. Why might the U.S. slave population have changed or remained the same from ? [History Standard 1 - causation]

23 Mapping Slavery in the United States
Students will demonstrate development of mental maps of Delaware and of the United States which include the relative location and characteristics of major… political divisions... [G1, 4-5] Students will explain how conflict and cooperation among people contribute to the division of the Earth's surface into distinctive cultural regions and political territories. [G4, 6-8]

24 Big Ideas: History Standards
Chronology/Analysis Interpretation Slave life changed over time. Understandings of property have changed over time. Slaves as objects. Slaves as subjects with agency.

25 Problematic Prior Knowledge: Misconceptions
Slavery only existed in the U.S. Slavery in the U.S. was the same as slavery everywhere. Slavery only involved whites owning blacks. All blacks were slaves prior to the Civil War. All slave owners were white. Most southerners owned slaves. All slave work involved picking cotton. Slavery was the same across time in the U.S. Kolchin presentation

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