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Chapter 12: The 2 nd War for Independence & the Upsurge of Nationalism.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: The 2 nd War for Independence & the Upsurge of Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12: The 2 nd War for Independence & the Upsurge of Nationalism

2 A Divided Nation (pg. 84) Election of 1812 (Republican strength in south & west) (overcame Federalist/antiwar Republican opposition in north) Opposition to War (“Mr. Madison’s War”) 1.New England Merchants (Embargo had hurt them) (profits hurt when War began) (impressment, inconvenient) (more loyal to Protestant English than Catholic French) 2.Federalists (seen more as a matter of principle) (opposed idea of taking Canada or Florida) (Republican scheme to increase voting strength) 3.“Quids” (Old “classic” Republicans) (violated Republican commitment to limited federal power)

3 Military Defeats & Naval Victories (pg. 85) Invasion of Canada (poorly equipped army) (disastrous) (burned govt. buildings in Toronto) (encouraged retaliation) Naval Battles (more successful than army) (Old Ironsides) (American privateers, motivated by patriotism & profit) (British forced to abandon idea of invading New England/NY) Chesapeake Campaign (British, burn govt. buildings) (Baltimore/Fr. McHenry) (F.S. Key, Star Spangled Banner) Southern Campaign (Jackson, Battle of Horseshoe Bend) (end Creeks’ alliance, open lands) (Battle of New Orleans) (War had ended 2 weeks earlier)

4 Hartford Convention (radical Federalists met in Conn.) (Constitution amended or secede from Union) (rejected) (heard news of Ghent/New Orleans, forget what we said) (branded as traitors/unpatriotic) (demise of Federalist Party) The Treaty of Ghent (British tired of Napoleonic Wars) (Madison, “we can’t win”) (American/British diplomats meet at Ghent, Belgium) 1.A halt to fighting 2.Return all conquered territory to prewar claimant 3.Recognition of prewar boundary between Canada & U.S. (nothing done about grievances that led to war) (war ended in stalemate with no gain to either side)

5 Wars’ Legacy 1.Survived 2 wars w/ Britain (gain respect of other nations) 2.U.S. accepts Canada as neighbor (part of British Empire) 3.Federalist Party declined (even in New England) 4.Talk of nullification/secession (used later by South) 5.Abandoned by British allies, Native Americans forced to give up large areas of land to white settlement 6.As European goods became unavailable (naval blockades), more U.S. factories were built (industrial self-sufficiency) 7.War heroes (Jackson & Harrison) later become presidents 8.Strong feeling towards American nationalism (future of U.S. lay in our west, stay away from Europe)

6 The Era of Good Feelings (pg. 87) James Monroe (Va. Dynasty) (won easily) Cultural Nationalism (young voted for Monroe, optimism) (expand westward/focus on itself, little interest in Europe) (patriotism, heroes) (Noah Webster, American dictionary) Economic Nationalism Tariff of 1816 (Europe “dumps” on American markets) (hurts American productivity) (1 st protective tariff) (infant) (everyone supports except New England, little industry) Henry Clay’s American System 1.Protective Tariffs (promote U.S. manufacturing) (raise $ to help pay for national transportation) (promote trade/West) 2.National Bank (national currency) (system runs smooth) 3.Internal Improvements (roads/canals/bridges) (strict?) (states pay for improvements)

7 The Panic of 1819 (pg. 89) Second Bank tightens credit (state banks closed, value of $ fell) (West hurt worst) Western Settlement & the Missouri Compromise (pg. 89) 1.Acquisition of Native Americans’ Lands (Harrison/Jackson) (military successes led to opening of new land for settlement) 2.Economic Pressures (War/1812 & Embargo hurt incomes) (many forced to seek new futures across Appalachians) 3.Improved Transportation (improvement made travel easier) (pioneering families reached destinations faster) (roads, canals, steamboats, later/RR)

8 Missouri Compromise (pg. 90) Tallmadge Amendment NY Representative proposed: 1.No more slaves in Missouri 2.All children of slaves in Missouri be emancipated at age 25 (gradual elimination of slavery in Missouri) Enraged southern senators defeated it quickly (northern effort to abolish slavery in all states)

9 Clay’s Proposal 1.Missouri admitted as a slaveholding state 2.Maine to be admitted as a free state 3.The rest of the Louisiana Territory (north of latitude 36’30”), slavery is to be prohibited Compromise is accepted by both Houses Slavery issue not dealt with Not a popular issue Swept under the rug

10 Aftermath Sectional feelings over slavery subsided Missouri Compromise preserved sectional balance In an “Era of Good Feelings,” the “good feelings’ were badly damaged by the storm of sectional controversy After this political crisis, Americans were torn between feelings of nationalism (loyalty to the nation) and feelings of sectionalism (loyalty to one’s own region)

11 Foreign Affairs (pg. 92) Rush-Bagot Agreement, 1817 War of 1812 ended war between England & U.S. (never resolved boundaries between both) Limited naval armament of the Great Lakes (extended to include the whole U.S./Canadian border) Treaty of 1818 Improved relations continued in a treaty that provided for: 1.Shared fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland 2.Joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for 10 years 3.Setting of the northern limits of the Louisiana Territory at the 49 th parallel (established western U.S./Canada boundary line)

12 Florida (pg. 93) Jackson’s Military Campaign (Jackson sent, stop raiders) (went beyond instructions) (destroyed Seminole villages) (Jacksonized, 2 chiefs/2 British traders) (took Pensacola) (drove out Spanish governor) (Congress fears zealousness) (war w/ Spain/England?) (Monroe supports Jackson) Florida’s Purchase Treaty, 1819 (Spain, take by force?) (Latin America takes priority) (know they can’t defend it) (try & get best possible terms for it) (take all of Florida) (claims to Oregon Territory) ($5 million & forget Texas)

13 The Monroe Doctrine British Initiative (British Navy, seen as threat/Europeans) (keeps Spain out of Latin Am.) (British as allies?) (warning?) American Response (could restrict our opportunities) (European don’t dare go into South America, against Britain) (we declare, no alliance with Britian) The Doctrine (Monroe, annual message to Congress) (U.S. opposed/European interference in Western Hemisphere) (we’ll stay out of Europe) The Impact (applauded by nationalistic Americans, forgotten) (Britain annoyed, applies to them also) (Europeans angry) (more afraid of British Navy, not U.S.) (insignificant?)

14 Changes in the Republican Party (pg. 95) Federalists out of step with country (nationalism vs. traitors) (defeated/1816 Election, no more) 1 Party (internal strife) (adopted Hamiltonian views) (Monroe, serves 2 terms) (1824 Election splits Republicans)

15 New Questions & Issues Frame #9 –Rapid growth in West, but new states still had small populations (compared to East & South) –To increase growth they compromised on 3 objectives: 1.“cheap money” (easy credit, state banks/not Bank/ U.S.) 2.Land made available at low prices by the govt. 3.Improved transportation –Slavery? (include it or exclude it?) –In the south, want slavery (labor for cotton fields) –In the north (had no use for slavery) (cheap immigrant labor for factories)

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