Presentation on theme: "THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but."— Presentation transcript:
1THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 exploded it again.
2Who was Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case? Who “won” the election for Kansas’ sovereignty?Stephen Douglas was a member of what political party?What happened at Potawatomie Creek?What was the nick-name for anti-slavery settlers in Kansas-Nebraska?
4Bleeding Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act Nullifies Missouri Compromise Territories to be settled slave or free by popular sovereignty (Stephen Douglas’ compromise)Implied - Kansas to be Slave and Nebraska FreeFree-soilers try to settle Kansas, touches off sectional conflictOnly 2 slaves in Kansas, only 15 in Nebraska,“an imaginary negro in an imaginary place”
8Bleeding Kansas 1855: 1st Election in Kansas Territory Missiourians (Slaveholders) cross border to swing election, win election, pass Lecompton Constitution (pro-slavery)1856 Free-soiler settlement at Lawrence, KS attacked by pro-slavery militiaJohn Brown retaliates at Pottawatomie Creek, murders 5Civil strife continues in Kansas until end of Civil War
10SUMMARY: The artist lays on the Democrats the major blame for violence perpetrated against antislavery settlers in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree. CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1856. NOTES: [Drawn by John L. Magee]
11Bleeding KansasCharles Sumner, abolitionist senator, delivers “The Crime Against Kansas.” Beaten by Preston Brooks on Senate Floor. N & S split in reaction to event. “First blows” of Civil War.1857: Kansas applies for statehood as slave stateAdmission opposed by Douglas, wants democratic resultAdmission supported by Pres. BuchananBuchanan and Douglas split the Democratic partyNew referendum called, Free-soilers win.South delays statehood request of a Free KansasStatehood delayed until 1861
12Dred Scott v Sanford, March 1857 “The question is simply this: Can a negro, whose ancestors were imported into this country, and sold as slaves, become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States, and as such become entitled to all the rights, and privileges, and immunities, guarantied by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States in the cases specified in the Constitution....”“It is impossible, it would seem, to believe that the great men of the slaveholding States, who took so large a share in framing the Constitution of the United States, and exercised so much influence in procuring its adoption, could have been so forgetful or regardless of their own safety and the safety of those who trusted and confided in them.... ““Upon the whole, therefore, it is the judgment of this court, that it appears by the record before us that the plaintiff in error is not a citizen of Missouri, in the sense in which that word is used in the Constitution; and that the Circuit Court of the United States, for that reason, had no juisdiction in the case, and could give no judgment in it. Its judgment for the defendant must, consequestly, be reversed, and a mandate issued, directing the suit to be dismissed for want of jurisdiction.”
15Lincoln-Douglas Debates- 1858 What was the debate about?Who was the winner?Who was the looser?What was the long-term impact of the debate?
16Stephen Douglas Democratic Senator of Illinois “I hold that under the Constitution of the United States each state of this Union has a right to do as it pleases on the subject of slavery. In Illinois we have exercised that right by abolishing slavery….It is non of our business whether slavery exists in Missouri. Hence I do not choose to occupy the time allotted to me in discussing a question that we have no right to act upon.”Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858
18Election of 1856 Search for “Kansas-less” candidates Republicans (new party) pick John C. Fremont PLATFORM: No further extension of slaveryDemocrats pick James BuchananPLATFORM: Popular sovereignty in territoriesAmerican/Nativists pick ex-Pres. FillmorePLATFORM: anti-Catholic, anti-immigrantRESULT: Buchanan wins, Democrats are split N & S
27Underground RailroadAbolitionists form a network of people who helped escaped slaves to journey to Canada or northern states for freedom.The people who worked on this network, called the Underground Railroad, were called “conductors.”The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman, who led over 300 slaves to freedom in 19 trips, despite a $40,000 bounty on her head.
28Bleeding Kansas 1855: 1st Election in Kansas Territory Missourians (Slaveholders) cross border illegally & win election, then pass Lecompton Constitution (pro-slavery)Free-soilers elect their own state govt. & own constitution.1856 Free-soiler settlement at Lawrence, KS attacked by pro-slavery militia of over 800 men. Town is sacked.John Brown retaliates at Pottawatomie Creek, murders 5, leads to deaths of over 200.Civil strife continues in Kansas until end of Civil War
29Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act factors that led to conflict?
30SUMMARY: The artist lays on the Democrats the major blame for violence perpetrated against antislavery settlers in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree. CREATED/PUBLISHED: 1856. NOTES: [Drawn by John L. Magee]
32Violence in the SenateCharles Sumner, abolitionist senator, delivers speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas,” attacking slavery and Southern Senators.Sumner is attacked by Preston Brooks on Senate Floor and beaten with a cane.Sumner suffers severe head injuries and is unable to serve in Senate for 3 years.N & S split in reaction to event. “First blows” of Civil War.
34How was the debate over slavery leading to violence?
35Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published in 1852 Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Rev. Beecher, abolitionistReaction to Fugitive Slave ActImmensely popular in North, shapes attitudes toward slaveryInfluential in France and EnglandImmense political impact in US and abroad
36THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 3Birth of the Republican PartyWhy were new political parties emergingin the mid-1800’s?HW: #1
37YOUR EXPERIENCE: What political parties do you know? What are their characteristics?What are their goals?Who do they represent?
38Election of 1852The Whig Party nominates Mexican war hero Winfield Scott.Scott opposes the Fugitive Slave Act.This infuriates Southern Whigs.Whig Party splits over slavery.Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce becomes President in 1852.See
39NEW POLITICAL PARTIESKnow-Nothing Party (Nativism): formed in 1849, favors native-born people over immigrants, anti-Catholic, and originally a secret-society.Free-Soil Party (Anti-slavery): formed in 1848 to oppose extension of slavery into the territories.Republican Party : Founded in 1854 to oppose Kansas-Nebraska Act and keep slavery out of territories. Absorbed parts of the Whigs, Free-soilers, and Know-nothing parties.
40Why were new political parties emerging in the mid-1800’s?
411848 1852 1856 Democrats Whigs Free Soil Party N. Whigs S. Whigs Franklin Pierce1856Republican PartyKnow-NothingsDemocratsJames Buchanan
42Election of 1856 Search for “Kansas-less” candidates Republicans (new party) pick John C. FremontPLATFORM: No further extension of slaveryDemocrats pick James BuchananPLATFORM: Popular sovereignty in territoriesAmerican/Nativists pick ex-Pres. FillmorePLATFORM: anti-Catholic, anti-immigrantRESULT: Buchanan wins, Democrats are split N & SSee
43THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 4Slavery and SecessionWhy did the South secede?HW: #1
44YOUR EXPERIENCE: Have you ever been part of a “break-up”? friendGirlfriendWhat signs were there that the break-up was coming?
45Dred Scott Decision - 1857 HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: Dred Scott lives in Illinois and Wisconsin for 5 years – free states. He argues he has become free by living there.Supreme Court, led by Roger B. Taney, decidesSlaves cannot sue in court b/c they are not full citizensSlaves are private property, govt. cannot take away property w/o due processHISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES:Kansas-Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, and Compromise of 1850 are now UNCONSTITUTIONAL!!!
47Lincoln-Douglas Debates - 1858 Stephen Douglass and Abe Lincoln run for same Senate seat for Illinois.Lincoln challenges Douglass to 7 open-air debates.KEY ISSUE: slavery in the territoriesDouglass = popular sovereignty should decide the issue (slavery will loose and whither away)Lincoln = slavery will not wither away, but must be stopped from spreading.Lincoln points out that popular sovereignty made irrelevant by Dred Scott v. Sanford.Douglass counters with Freeport Doctrine, suggests that states/people can “work around” or ignore the ruling.
48John Brown and Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859 – John Brown and 18 men attempt to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.Their intent = start a slave rebellion in Virginia.They fail. Stopped by local militia and Col. Robert E. Lee’s US marines.Brown is tried for treason in a VA court and hung on Dec. 2, 1859.Brown becomes a martyr to Northern Abolitionists.South believes Northern abolitionists are trying to start slave rebellions. More talk of secession.
50John Brown ( ) was an abolitionist who took direct action to free slaves by force. Following his raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, in mid-October 1859, he was convicted of treason, conspiracy, and murder. One of the most controversial abolitionists, Brown was regarded by some as a martyr and by others as a common assassin. … Ralph Waldo Emerson said that Brown's death would "make the gallows as glorious as the cross." This image shows a heroic Brown … as he walks to his execution on December 2, 1859.John Brown, The Martyr New York: Currier and Ives, 1870
52Election of 1860 Republicans hold their national convention in 1860. Everyone expects Sen. Seward to bb nominated.Seward, however, has made too many aggressive anti-slavery remarks.Lincoln-Douglass Debates introduce Lincoln to the nation, and he is nominated instead.Democrats are split into North and South, weakening the party.Know-nothings and others form the Constitutional Union Party, which takes away votes from the DemsLincoln wins the election.
54South SecedesLincoln wins every Northern state and NOT ONE Southern state.Southerners feel they have lost their voice in the national government. To protect their states’ rights they secede.Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes, followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida and Texas.These 7 form the Confederate States of America.President Buchanan does NOTHING.The Nation waits: What will Lincoln do when he takes office?