Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 exploded it again.

2 1.Who was Chief Justice for the Dred Scott case? 2.Who “won” the election for Kansas’ sovereignty? 3.Stephen Douglas was a member of what political party? 4.What happened at Potawatomie Creek? 5.What was the nick-name for anti-slavery settlers in Kansas-Nebraska?

3 Kansas-Nebraska Act

4 Bleeding Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act Nullifies Missouri Compromise Territories to be settled slave or free by popular sovereignty (Stephen Douglas’ compromise) Implied - Kansas to be Slave and Nebraska Free Free-soilers try to settle Kansas, touches off sectional conflict Only 2 slaves in Kansas, only 15 in Nebraska, “an imaginary negro in an imaginary place”

5 Armed antislavery men with John Doy Though no one would deny that their cause was noble, many of the men who flocked to Kansas to resist the expansion of slavery were no less violent than their proslavery adversaries. This photograph, taken in 1859, shows a gang of armed antislavery men who had just broken an accomplice (John Doy, seated) out of jail in neighboring St. Joseph, Missouri. Like proslavery "Border Ruffians," many of these men also served in guerrilla bands during the Civil War and some went on to careers as famous outlaws after the war was over. (Kansas State Historical Society) Armed antislavery men with John Doy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 Free State Battery, 1856 The slave state of Missouri opposed the entry of antislavery advocates for years and, by the 1850s, actively tried to prevent their passage through Missouri on the way to Kansas. "Free-staters" traveled through Iowa instead, often bringing arms with them. This small cannon, left over from the Mexican War, helped create "Bleeding Kansas." (Kansas State Historical Society) Free State Battery, 1856 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

7 Map: Bleeding Kansas Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 Bleeding Kansas 1855: 1 st Election in Kansas Territory Missiourians (Slaveholders) cross border to swing election, win election, pass Lecompton Constitution (pro-slavery) 1856 Free-soiler settlement at Lawrence, KS attacked by pro-slavery militia John Brown retaliates at Pottawatomie Creek, murders 5 Civil strife continues in Kansas until end of Civil War

9

10 SUMMARY: The artist lays on the Democrats the major blame for violence perpetrated against antislavery settlers in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree. CREATED/PUBLISHED: NOTES: [Drawn by John L. Magee]

11 Bleeding Kansas Charles Sumner, abolitionist senator, delivers “The Crime Against Kansas.” Beaten by Preston Brooks on Senate Floor. N & S split in reaction to event. “First blows” of Civil War. 1857: Kansas applies for statehood as slave state Admission opposed by Douglas, wants democratic result Admission supported by Pres. Buchanan Buchanan and Douglas split the Democratic party New referendum called, Free-soilers win. South delays statehood request of a Free Kansas Statehood delayed until 1861

12 Dred Scott v Sanford, March 1857 “The question is simply this: Can a negro, whose ancestors were imported into this country, and sold as slaves, become a member of the political community formed and brought into existence by the Constitution of the United States, and as such become entitled to all the rights, and privileges, and immunities, guarantied by that instrument to the citizen? One of which rights is the privilege of suing in a court of the United States in the cases specified in the Constitution....” “It is impossible, it would seem, to believe that the great men of the slaveholding States, who took so large a share in framing the Constitution of the United States, and exercised so much influence in procuring its adoption, could have been so forgetful or regardless of their own safety and the safety of those who trusted and confided in them.... “ “Upon the whole, therefore, it is the judgment of this court, that it appears by the record before us that the plaintiff in error is not a citizen of Missouri, in the sense in which that word is used in the Constitution; and that the Circuit Court of the United States, for that reason, had no juisdiction in the case, and could give no judgment in it. Its judgment for the defendant must, consequestly, be reversed, and a mandate issued, directing the suit to be dismissed for want of jurisdiction.”

13 Lincoln Clean-shaven at the time of his famous debates with Douglas, Lincoln would soon grow a beard to give himself a more distinguished appearance. (Library of Congress) Lincoln Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

14 CAUSES AND EFFECTS RISE OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY CAUSESEFFECTS

15 Lincoln-Douglas Debates What was the debate about? Who was the winner? Who was the looser? What was the long-term impact of the debate?

16 Stephen Douglas Democratic Senator of Illinois “I hold that under the Constitution of the United States each state of this Union has a right to do as it pleases on the subject of slavery. In Illinois we have exercised that right by abolishing slavery….It is non of our business whether slavery exists in Missouri. Hence I do not choose to occupy the time allotted to me in discussing a question that we have no right to act upon.” Lincoln-Douglas debates, 1858

17 Map: Mining and Cattle Frontiers, Mining and Cattle Frontiers, The western mining and ranching bonanzas lured thousands of Americans hoping to get rich quick. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

18 Election of 1856 Search for “Kansas-less” candidates Republicans (new party) pick John C. Fremont PLATFORM: No further extension of slavery Democrats pick James Buchanan PLATFORM: Popular sovereignty in territories American/Nativists pick ex-Pres. Fillmore PLATFORM: anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant RESULT: Buchanan wins, Democrats are split N & S

19

20 Southern Chivalry Cartoons like this one, showing the beating of antislavery Senator Charles Sumner by Preston "Bully" Brooks, confirmed northern images of white southerners as people who prided themselves on their genteel manners but who behaved like street toughs. (Library of Congress) Southern Chivalry Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 Harpers Ferry & John Brown’s Raid What is John Brown’s Kansas connection?

22 African American Family Group, Virginia, 1861–1862 This photograph was taken by Larkin J. Mead, an antislavery advocate from New England, who went south to assist the slaves after the outbreak of the Civil War. (Library of Congress) African American Family Group, Virginia, 1861–1862 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 Lincoln by Alexander Gardner, 1861 When Lincoln became president in March of 1861, he faced more severe problems than any predecessor. Photographer Mathew Brady captured this image of the solemn president-elect on February 23, 1861, a few weeks after the formation of the Confederacy and shortly before Lincoln's inauguration. (Library of Congress) Lincoln by Alexander Gardner, 1861 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

24

25 Map: The Election of 1860 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

26

27 Underground Railroad Abolitionists form a network of people who helped escaped slaves to journey to Canada or northern states for freedom. The people who worked on this network, called the Underground Railroad, were called “conductors.” The most famous conductor was Harriet Tubman, who led over 300 slaves to freedom in 19 trips, despite a $40,000 bounty on her head.

28 Bleeding Kansas 1855: 1 st Election in Kansas Territory Missourians (Slaveholders) cross border illegally & win election, then pass Lecompton Constitution (pro-slavery) Free-soilers elect their own state govt. & own constitution Free-soiler settlement at Lawrence, KS attacked by pro-slavery militia of over 800 men. Town is sacked. John Brown retaliates at Pottawatomie Creek, murders 5, leads to deaths of over 200. Civil strife continues in Kansas until end of Civil War

29 Why were the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas- Nebraska Act factors that led to conflict?

30 SUMMARY: The artist lays on the Democrats the major blame for violence perpetrated against antislavery settlers in Kansas in the wake of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Here a bearded "freesoiler" has been bound to the "Democratic Platform" and is restrained by two Lilliputian figures, presidential nominee James Buchanan and Democratic senator Lewis Cass. Democratic senator Stephen A. Douglas and president Franklin Pierce, also shown as tiny figures, force a black man into the giant's gaping mouth. The freesoiler's head rests on a platform marked "Kansas," "Cuba," and "Central America," probably referring to Democratic ambitions for the extension of slavery. In the background left is a scene of burning and pillage; on the right a dead man hangs from a tree. CREATED/PUBLISHED: NOTES: [Drawn by John L. Magee]

31 Armed antislavery men with John Doy Though no one would deny that their cause was noble, many of the men who flocked to Kansas to resist the expansion of slavery were no less violent than their proslavery adversaries. This photograph, taken in 1859, shows a gang of armed antislavery men who had just broken an accomplice (John Doy, seated) out of jail in neighboring St. Joseph, Missouri. Like proslavery "Border Ruffians," many of these men also served in guerrilla bands during the Civil War and some went on to careers as famous outlaws after the war was over. (Kansas State Historical Society) Armed antislavery men with John Doy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

32 Violence in the Senate Charles Sumner, abolitionist senator, delivers speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas,” attacking slavery and Southern Senators. Sumner is attacked by Preston Brooks on Senate Floor and beaten with a cane. Sumner suffers severe head injuries and is unable to serve in Senate for 3 years. N & S split in reaction to event. “First blows” of Civil War.

33

34 How was the debate over slavery leading to violence?

35 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published in 1852 Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe, daughter of Rev. Beecher, abolitionist Reaction to Fugitive Slave Act Immensely popular in North, shapes attitudes toward slavery Influential in France and England Immense political impact in US and abroad

36 THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 3 Birth of the Republican Party Why were new political parties emerging in the mid-1800’s? HW: #1

37 YOUR EXPERIENCE: What political parties do you know? What are their characteristics? What are their goals? Who do they represent?

38 Election of 1852 The Whig Party nominates Mexican war hero Winfield Scott. Scott opposes the Fugitive Slave Act. This infuriates Southern Whigs. Whig Party splits over slavery. Democratic candidate Franklin Pierce becomes President in See T

39 NEW POLITICAL PARTIES Know-Nothing Party (Nativism): formed in 1849, favors native-born people over immigrants, anti-Catholic, and originally a secret-society. Free-Soil Party (Anti-slavery): formed in 1848 to oppose extension of slavery into the territories. Republican Party : Founded in 1854 to oppose Kansas-Nebraska Act and keep slavery out of territories. Absorbed parts of the Whigs, Free-soilers, and Know-nothing parties.

40 Why were new political parties emerging in the mid-1800’s?

41 Whigs Democrats S. WhigsN. Whigs Democrats 1852 Franklin Pierce 1848 Free Soil Party Republican Party 1856 James Buchanan Know-Nothings

42 Election of 1856 Search for “Kansas-less” candidates Republicans (new party) pick John C. Fremont PLATFORM: No further extension of slavery Democrats pick James Buchanan PLATFORM: Popular sovereignty in territories American/Nativists pick ex-Pres. Fillmore PLATFORM: anti-Catholic, anti-immigrant RESULT: Buchanan wins, Democrats are split N & S See

43 THE UNION IN PERIL: CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR CHAPTER 10 Section 4 Slavery and Secession Why did the South secede? HW: #1

44 YOUR EXPERIENCE: Have you ever been part of a “break-up”? –friend –Girlfriend What signs were there that the break-up was coming?

45 Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott lives in Illinois and Wisconsin for 5 years – free states. He argues he has become free by living there. Supreme Court, led by Roger B. Taney, decides –Slaves cannot sue in court b/c they are not full citizens –Slaves are private property, govt. cannot take away property w/o due process HISTORICAL CONSEQUENCES: Kansas-Nebraska Act, Missouri Compromise, and Compromise of 1850 are now UNCONSTITUTIONAL!!!

46

47 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Stephen Douglass and Abe Lincoln run for same Senate seat for Illinois. Lincoln challenges Douglass to 7 open-air debates. KEY ISSUE: slavery in the territories Douglass = popular sovereignty should decide the issue (slavery will loose and whither away) Lincoln = slavery will not wither away, but must be stopped from spreading. Lincoln points out that popular sovereignty made irrelevant by Dred Scott v. Sanford. Douglass counters with Freeport Doctrine, suggests that states/people can “work around” or ignore the ruling.

48 John Brown and Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859 – John Brown and 18 men attempt to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Their intent = start a slave rebellion in Virginia. They fail. Stopped by local militia and Col. Robert E. Lee’s US marines. Brown is tried for treason in a VA court and hung on Dec. 2, Brown becomes a martyr to Northern Abolitionists. South believes Northern abolitionists are trying to start slave rebellions. More talk of secession.

49 bin/ampage?collId=llst&fileName=021//llst021.db&recNum=9&item Link=D?llstbib:1:./temp/~ammem_TsjL::&linkText=0

50 John Brown ( ) was an abolitionist who took direct action to free slaves by force. Following his raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, in mid-October 1859, he was convicted of treason, conspiracy, and murder. One of the most controversial abolitionists, Brown was regarded by some as a martyr and by others as a common assassin. … Ralph Waldo Emerson said that Brown's death would "make the gallows as glorious as the cross." This image shows a heroic Brown … as he walks to his execution on December 2, John Brown, The Martyr New York: Currier and Ives, m007.html#jbrown

51 bin/ampage?collId=llst&fileNa me=021//llst021.db&recNum= 104&itemLink=D%3Fllstbib% 3A1%3A.%2Ftemp%2F%7Ea mmem_TsjL%3A%3A&linkTe xt=0

52 Election of 1860 Republicans hold their national convention in Everyone expects Sen. Seward to bb nominated. Seward, however, has made too many aggressive anti-slavery remarks. Lincoln-Douglass Debates introduce Lincoln to the nation, and he is nominated instead. Democrats are split into North and South, weakening the party. Know-nothings and others form the Constitutional Union Party, which takes away votes from the Dems Lincoln wins the election.

53

54 South Secedes Lincoln wins every Northern state and NOT ONE Southern state. Southerners feel they have lost their voice in the national government. To protect their states’ rights they secede. Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes, followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida and Texas. These 7 form the Confederate States of America. President Buchanan does NOTHING. The Nation waits: What will Lincoln do when he takes office?

55

56 Why did the South secede? Why wasn’t another compromise possible/tried?


Download ppt "THEME: The sectional conflict over the expansion of slavery that erupted after the Mexican War was temporarily quieted by the Compromise of 1850, but Douglas’s."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google