Presentation on theme: "How did we get to the Civil War? U.S. History Summer School 2014."— Presentation transcript:
How did we get to the Civil War? U.S. History Summer School 2014
Blame Jefferson! Why? –Expansion ideas –Ideals of Farming –Didn’t leave Anti-slavery ideas in Dec of Independence
Northwest Ordinance 1787 Established that no state Northwest of the Ohio River could be a slave state. This agreement works Then the rapid expansion of the early 1800s begins. The first trouble is in 1819
Missouri Territory Due to its location on the Mississippi River Missouri grows very quickly. By 1819 it is large enough and organized to be admitted as a state. Those in the north did not want Missouri admitted as a slave state. It was not Northwest of the Ohio River however. In the original statehood bill, an amendment was added calling for the gradual ending of slavery in Missouri. This riled up the states rights and slavery issue.
Missouri Compromise - 1820 Three Parts –Slavery would not be restricted in Missouri and become a state. –The area of Northern Massachusetts would become the new free state of Maine. This keeps the balance of power in the senate 12-12. –Congress agrees that in further expansion in the Louisiana purchase, All territories north of 36 30’ would be free territories. Problem Solved?
Jackson’s Dilemma with South Carolina 1832 Tariff of 1828 –Heavy Tax on imports designed to boost American manufacturing –Benefits the Industrial North – Forces Southerners to pay more for manufactured goods. South Carolina says states have the right to challenge the Federal Government when they think the Fed has exceeded its authority. S.C. says that states have the right to “Nullify” federal laws they feel are unconstitutional. 1832 another Tariff is passed and S.C. nullifies it and threatens to secede from the Union if the government does not respect its rights. Jackson, a Southerner, is angry with S.C. and threatens to send 50,000 troops to make sure the tariffs are paid. Through a series of compromises S.C. finally agrees.
Wilmot Proviso Central Issue facing the Country in 1840s and 50s was the issue of slavery in the territory claimed from Mexico. In 1846 David Wilmot attempts to attach a small proviso to a spending bill stating “As a condition of obtaining land from Mexico, Slavery shall not be permitted in any of that land.” The bill does not pass and Wilmot attempts to attach the proviso to several other bill s and all fail. Result – Brings the issue of Slavery back into the Congresses eye and gets everyone thinking about it again.
The California Gold Rush 1849 Due to the gold rush, California grows very quickly and asks to be admitted as a free state in 1850. This would change the balance of power in the Senate. There were no possible slave states ready to become states. South did not want California admitted, Government wants California Tax Dollars. Missouri Compromise did not apply
The Compromise of 1850 5 Parts created by esteemed Senators Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster. –California admitted as Free State –New Mexico and Utah territories would decide using popular sovereignty –Congress would abolish sale of slaves but not slavery in Washington D.C. –Texas gives up claims to New Mexico for 10 million –Fugitive Slave Act – Orders all citizens of U.S. to assist in the return of enslaved people to their owners and denies a trial by jury to escaped slaves. Now the issue of Slavery is done right?
Personal Ambitions hurt U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas from Illinois has a problem. He wants more westward development so Chicago can continue to grow and become an important Railroad Hub. He also wants to run for President but needs to support of the southern Democrats. If he pushes the statehood of Kansas and Nebraska he improves power of Chicago, but loses support in the south because according to the Missouri Compromise they would be Free states. He comes up with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 – Kansas-Nebraska Act in reality repeals the Missouri Compromise. It states that Kansas and Nebraska should use popular sovereignty to decide whether to be free or slave. Douglas does not think the states will vote to be slave due to the harsh weather conditions. It will make southerners happy because it gives slavery the opportunity to expand. He also thinks Northerners will support it. He was wrong!
Bleeding Kansas Last Straw Due to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Slavery expansion becomes a hot topic. The Free Soil Party, founded in 1848, moves to Kansas to prevent Slavery in the territory. Organized Pro-slavery groups in Missouri, organize secretly to oppose the free soilers. By 1855 Kansas had two competing capitals –Topeka, Antislavery –Lecompton, Proslavery By 1856 there was open violence. –Proslavery groups loot free soil offices and homes in Lawrence Kansas. –Antislavery advocate John Brown and his supports go to proslavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek, take 5 men from their beds and murder them in front of their families
Violence extends to Capital Antislavery Senator Charles Sumner from Mass. Gives speech “The Crime Against Kansas” In speech he insults Sen. Andrew Butler from South Carolina. Butler’s Nephew, Representative Preston Brooks, goes to defend his Uncle and the Honor of the South. Brooks approaches Sumner at his desk and beats him with his cane nearly to death. Brooks resigns in H.O.R. but re-elected 6 months later. Brooks becomes a hero to the South Sumner becomes a martyr in the North
Election of 1856 Two Major Parties are Democrats and newly formed Republicans –Buchanan for Democrats –Freemont for Republicans Democrats supported Kansas-Nebraska Act. Republicans denounced it. Buchanan wins due to winning all of the South and a few key northern states. Republicans have strong support in North but become a major party. Buchanan pledged he would stop “Northern agitation of the slavery issue” He also expected the Supreme Court to finally decide the issue once and for all. The opposite happens!
Dred Scott Decision 1857 1857 – Dred Scott v. Sandford –Dred Scott was slave in Missouri. He filed a lawsuit against his owner. He states because he and his wife once lived in states and territories where slavery was illegal, then the couple was in fact free. Decision 7-2 Against Scott - 3 parts –Slaves were not citizens and had no right to sue in court. –Living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not make you free. –Declared the Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional because slaves were property and Govt. could not deprive citizens of life liberty or property without due process according to 5 th amendment.
Lecompton Constitution 1857 small proslavery group get together and write a constitution so Kansas can become a state. Most Kansans were opposed to slavery and refused to vote for constitution because both options on ballot guaranteed slavery. Buchanan hoping the slavery issue would go away when Kansas became a state ENDORSES the Lecompton Constitution! Disregarding Popular Sovereignty causes northern Democrats to leave party. In 1858 the Constitution is returned to Kansas for a final vote and it is soundly defeated. But due to the Dred Scott decision, Slavery is now open to all territories!
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Douglas had annoyed many of his moderate supporters due to the Kansas-Nebraska Act and Republicans felt they could win his Senate seat in the 1858 congressional elections. Republicans nominate Lincoln to run against Douglas. In a series of 7 debates the two discuss the issue of slavery in the states and territories. The debates are legendary at times going on for 4-5 hours drawing huge crowds. Lincoln loses to Douglas in the election but gains national attention through these debates. He also states his opinion on what he believed was the coming confrontation of slavery. –“A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.”
John Brown’s Raid October 16 th, 1859 Attacks Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry Hoped to seize weapons so slaves could rebel. They fail with half of the men being killed including Brown’s sons. Brown is convicted and hanged for Treason Worst fear for the south and they get more paranoid Brown becomes Martyr in North
Election of 1860 Democrats split into Northern and Southern factions. Republicans only on ballot in Free States Older moderate Whigs in middle states form new party Constitutional Union. Republicans expected to nominate Seward, but as convention goes along they feel his anti- slavery views are too extreme. They decide they need a more moderate voice. Abraham Lincoln
Election of 1860 - Results Proves division in country is beyond repair –Lincoln wins by winning nearly all free states –Democrat split causes them to lose –Lincoln wins without nearly a single vote in the south –Gains only 39 percent of popular vote –Lincoln wins 180 electoral votes which is majority needed. –It was a decisive win, but a sectional one South outraged a man could be elected without any Southern votes. Calls for secession begin!
Secession South Carolina secedes December 20 th 1860. 6 more secede over the next 2 weeks. Before Lincoln is inaugurated, S.C., Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Louisiana, and Georgia. They meet February 1861 in Montgomery, Alabama and create new nation. –The Confederate States of America Elect former Senator Jefferson Davis President