Presentation on theme: "The Sectional Crisis: Political Events of the 1850s."— Presentation transcript:
The Sectional Crisis: Political Events of the 1850s
I.The Compromise of 1850 A.What was the balance of free & slave states in 1849? 15 free states & 15 slave states B.What state was attempting to enter the U.S? California
C.Which Senators debated about this issue? What did each side want? John C. Calhoun versus Daniel Webster D.Who tried to work out a compromise? Henry Clay SOUTHERN STATES WANT Western territories open to slavery. Western territories open to slavery. Enforcement of fugitive slave laws.Enforcement of fugitive slave laws. NORTHERN STATES WANT Slavery abolished in Washington D.C.Slavery abolished in Washington D.C. California as a free state.California as a free state.
E.What were the final terms of the compromise? California admitted as a free state. Utah and New Mexico’s status to be determined by POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY. Sale of slaves outlawed in Washington D.C. New and “improved” Fugitive Slave Act with strict enforcement. F.What Senator sealed the deal on the Compromise? Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois (the Little Giant)
II. Bleeding Kansas A.What was the idea of popular sovereignty? Each state should be able to vote to become either a slave state or a free state. B.What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act declare? Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to divide Kansas and Nebraska. It would repeal (nullify) the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty in each state.
C.Who were the “border ruffians” and what did they do? What were they trying to accomplish? They were Missourians who entered Kansas illegally to vote for it (Kansas) to become a slave state. D.What did John Brown and his men do? What were they trying to accomplish? They killed 5 pro-slavery men at their homes. Brown believed he was called by God to fight slavery. E.What was the reaction to the events in Kansas in the Senate? Senators also became violent. Sen. Charles Sumner was beaten nearly to death by a congressman on the floor of the U.S. Senate.
III. Dred Scott v. Sanford A.Who was Dred Scott? Who was Sanford? Dred Scott was a slave from Missouri who was moved to free states with his owner. Sanford was his owner. B.What was the conflict between them in the case? 2 issues- Was Scott a citizen of the U.S.?, Did residence in a free state make Scott a free man? C.When (was the case decided)? March 6, 1857 D.Where (was the case heard)? The Supreme Court E.Who issued the court decision? Roger B. Taney F.Why did the court decide the way it did? The court said that the Constitution protected property and that slaves were the property of owners even if they were in a free state.
IV. Lincoln-Douglas Debates A.What political office were Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas running for? Senator from the state of Illinois B.When and where did the debates take place? There were seven outdoor debates In 1858 throughout Illinois. C.What was the difference between the two candidates’ positions on slavery? LINCOLN: Believed slavery was immoral Believed it needed to be outawed in the territories to stop its spread. Tries to reveal the fact that Douglas’ popular sovereignty views would ensure the spread of slavery. DOUGLAS: Believed in Popular Sovereignty. Thought slavery would die out on its own. Tried to make Lincoln look like an abolitionist.
D.What were the results of the debates as far as the careers and reputations of these two men? Douglas won the Senate race. BUT, the Democratic party became weaker and split because of the slavery issue. AND it drew national attention to Abraham Lincoln, making him a nationally famous figure in the Republican party.
V.The Raid on Harper’s Ferry A.What (was the point of the raid)? To steal weapons from the U.S. arsenal and then arm slaves as part of a rebellion. B.When (did the raid take place)? October 16, 1859 C.Where (was Harper’s Ferry)? Virginia D.Who (organized and executed the raid)? John Brown E.Why (did the raid fail)? No slaves rebelled with him, local militias fought back, and the U.S. Marines swooped in and captured Brown F.What happened to John Brown? He was tried, convicted, and hanged for treason.
VI.Lincoln & the Election of 1860 A.What party chose Lincoln as its candidate in 1860? Why? The Republican party chose Lincoln because: His reputation was fresh, new, and respected. He seemed more moderate than original front-runner William H. Seward. Lincoln wanted to stop spread of slavery, but he promised the South that he would not interfere with their slaves. B.What candidates ran for president in 1860 and which parties did they represent? Republican Party- Abraham Lincoln Southern Democratic Party- J.C. Breckinridge Constitutional Union Party- John Bell Northern Democratic Party- Stephen A. Douglas
C.What did each of the candidates running for president believe about slavery? Lincoln- halt the spread, keep slavery in the south Breckinridge- Supported Dred Scott decision Bell- ignored slavery completely Douglas- supported popular sovereignty D.Who won the election? Where was his support from? Lincoln won and his support was from the free states in the north. No southern states voted for him and many did even not put him on the ballot.
E.What was the immediate reaction to the results of the election in the South? The South believed they had lost their voice in government. South Carolina seceded (quit, dropped out) just a few days after the announcement of Lincoln as the winner. By inauguration day, 7 states had dropped out of the Union and formed their own country, called the Confederate States of America.