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Sectionalism and the Coming War.  Spread of slavery into new territories became a big issue  Balance of power between North and South upset  They searched.

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Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism and the Coming War.  Spread of slavery into new territories became a big issue  Balance of power between North and South upset  They searched."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sectionalism and the Coming War

2  Spread of slavery into new territories became a big issue  Balance of power between North and South upset  They searched for compromise, but in the end it did not work  This chapter focuses on the new territories, growing tensions, attempts at compromise, secession and the start of the Civil War

3  Proposed that any new territory gained from Mexico would not have slavery  Outraged southerners  Passed the House, but Senate refused to vote on it  John C. Calhoun proposed a series of counter resolutions – never voted on, but showed anger of south  In response, John C. Calhoun warned of “political revolution, anarchy and civil war”

4  Lewis Cass proposed that new territories decide for themselves if they would have slavery  Popular sovereignty  Free Soil Party (1848)  Opposed slavery in the “free soil” of the west  Feared that slavery could hurt white farmers

5  California to be a state  Free?  Southerners dreaded this  First whispers of secession  Clay’s Proposal  California = free  Rest of Mexican cession = slavery not restricted  Calhoun’s Response  North trying to destroy South  Accept Southern rights, return fugitive slaves, and guarantee balance of power

6  Clay’s bill never passed  President Taylor opposed it, but then he died in office  VP Fillmore supported it  Calhoun was also dead now  Stephen Douglas broke the bill into small parts and each one of them passed  They saw this as the “final settlement” between North and South

7  A person could claim an African-American had escaped from slavery  Runaway was captured and put before a federal commissioner  Had no rights to testify on own behalf  An affidavit that stated the person had escaped from slavery and testimony from a white witness was all that was required to order the person sent back to the South  $10 fee to commissioner for judgments in favor of slaveholder, $5 for judgments in favor of slave

8  Federal marshals required to assist in catching slaves  Citizens could be deputized to help  Accounts of unjust seizure  Heavy fines/prison terms for helping runaways  North felt that no colored man was safe on the streets  Made people in the North hate slavery even more  Even those who had not cared before

9  Despite punishments under FSA  Informal, well-organized system that helped enslaved persons to escape  “Conductors” transported runaways north in secret  Shelter and food along the way  Even risked going to the South  Harriet Tubman  Deepened mistrust between North and South

10  Harriet Beecher Stowe  Featured the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners— revolve.  The sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while also asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings  Changed how people viewed slavery and African Americans  Eventually sold millions of copies  Some historians consider a “cause” of the Civil War

11  Connect east to west  2 routes were initially proposed – northern and southern  Southern route required railroad to pass through Mexico  Gadsden Purchase  Bought land from Mexico  Southern AZ and NM for $10m  North route required new state – Nebraska  South would not allow until Missouri Compromise was repealed to allow slavery in the new territory

12  Knew they could nor repeal Missouri Compromise without dividing country  Bill would allow popular sovereignty  Southerners were not fooled – knew that with Missouri Compromise in place, slaveholders would not move there and they would become free states  New bill proposed, undid Missouri Compromise and allowed slavery  Also proposed splitting it into 2 territories – Kansas and Nebraska  One free, one slave – based on popular sovereignty  Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in May, 1854

13  Kansas became a battleground between those who wanted to extend slavery and those who opposed it  Both groups rushed there to try to get it settled most by their side  Civil war broke out in Kansas  Paper titled it “Bleeding Kansas”  By end of 1856, 200 had dies and $2m worth of property had been destroyed

14  Slavery controversy accelerated the breakdown of major political parties and creation of new ones  Kansas-Nebraska Act anger gave birth to the Republican Party (people left other parties to start new one)  They agreed on reviving the spirit of the revolution and that the South was becoming an aristocracy that controlled the federal government  They did NOT agree on abolishing slavery, but did agree that it had to be kept out of new territories  Absorbed Know-Nothings

15  Pressure was on Supreme Court to decide slavery issue in territories  Dred Scott v Sanford  Dred Scott was a slave  Slave owner took him to a free state before returning to Missouri  He argued that he was free due to the time he spent in the free state  He lost  He was not a citizen, so he did not have the right to sue in court  Instead of deciding issue – it became an issue and intensified conflict

16  John Brown = abolitionist  Plan to seize federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia  Free the enslaved and arm them  Begin a rebellion (insurrection) against slaveholders  10/16/1859, Brown and 18 others seized the arsenal  Within 36 hours it was over and Brown was captured  Sentenced to death  To North – martyr for noble cause  To South – “see…they are plotting against us!”

17  Final straw  Republicans had been blamed for Brown’s raid  Democratic Party was torn apart by debate over slavery in western territories  Divided between northern and southern democrats  Ended up with 4 candidates from 4 parties  Lincoln (Republican) won  Without Southern support  Represented a victory of the abolitionists

18  SC first to secede, 6 other states soon followed  As they seceded they also seized federal property in their states, including arsenals and forts  Some still hoped to hold it all together  Critterden’s Compromise  Line – slavery protected below it, prohibited above it  Did not pass  A peace conference  On same day as peace conference, southern state leaders met and formed the Confederate States of America  Drafted a constitution  President = Jefferson Davis

19  Lincoln was going to resupply Ft. Sumter  Davis planned to capture it before the supply ship arrived  Wanted to avoid war – be own nation, but not go to war with US  Demanded that Ft. Sumter surrender  Didn’t happen  Confederates fired on Ft. Sumter for 33 hours  Destroyed the fort, killed no one  Civil War had begun

20  Soon upper southern states seceded  State loyalty versus country loyalty  With upper south gone, Lincoln wanted to hold onto border states  Martial law was imposed in slaveholding border states  Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland  Military took control  They all would go one way or the other during the war

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