Presentation on theme: "VOCABULARY Abolitionist"— Presentation transcript:
1VOCABULARY Abolitionist opponent of slavery: somebody who campaigned against slavery during the 18th and 19th centuries
2Early Abolitionist Movements Banned throughout North by 1800African Colonization Society (ACS)Founded in 1817 in D.C. & VirginiaGoal was to relocate free blacks “home” to AfricaSet up a colony in LiberiaSent some 13,000 by 1867In general, more concerned with white welfare than black welfare1819—Monroe signs law sending all blacks captured being illegally transported into AmericaMonroviaLincoln’s unwavering supportProblems:--expensive--most blacks didn’t want to go “home”--hostile opposition of many northern abolitionists
3Moderate Abolitionist Goals End fugitive slave lawsEnd internal slave trade and slavery in D.C.“Free Soil” Party (1848)Born out of the Liberty Party (1840) and formed to stop the spread of slaveryOften mostly concerned with preserving the opportunities of poor whitesDevelops into the Republican Party in 1854
4Opposition to Abolitionism Necessary EvilWould kill the economies of North AND SouthFear of millions of free blacksPositive GoodThe “Benevolent Institution”Slavery “civilized” blacksSlaves better treated than free industrial workersActually some calls to extend slavery to white workersAbolitionism might lead to a WarWidespread racism“natural” position for “inferior” blacks
5Radical Abolitionist Goals David Walker, black man, published “Walker’s Appeal” in 1829Called for the end of slavery by all means necessary, openly called for violence against slave ownersGarrison disagreedFound mysteriously dead in 1830Lane RebelsStudents of Lane College and Seminary, products of the 2nd Great Awakening, who wrote and spoke against racism and inequality.Weld & Tappan bros. (inspired H. B. Stowe)Zinn, P. 344
6William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879 Most concerned with effect on blacksBelieved in inherent total andcomplete equality of all racesImmediate and total freeing of allslaves and full citizenshipWould not compromisePublished The LiberatorAmerican Anti-Slavery Society250,000 members by 1832His radicalism divided abolitionistsTotal pacifistSaw any force as violent; “TheConstitution is a pact with theDevil”Total equality for womenNorthern disunion from SouthGarrison readingBurned copy of Const on 7/4/54Hated, hunted, etc.Came to grudgingly accept Civil War--cheered by thousands at reading of 13th AmendmentWomen & London Anti-Slavery Society meeting in 1840William Lloyd Garrison,
8Frederick Douglass Born a slave; white father, black mother Self-taught to read and writeEscaped in 1838 (age 20)Abolitionist speaker in US & EnglandWrote a very influential autobiographyInsisted on complete social & economic equality, not just end of slaveryAlso an advocate for women’s equalityStory of first public address & Garrison’s responseRead July 4th Address
9The Dispute over Slavery Social/Moral IssuesEconomic IssuesPolitical IssuesSlavery is not the only cause of the War, but all the other causes seem to have their roots in slavery.
10The Social/Moral Issue of Slavery North SouthSaw slaves as property, not citizensArgued that slavery was good for the slavesFighting for the “Southern way of life”Fearful of blacks if they were freedSome were abolitionistsBut only a small minority were active abolitionistsMost just wanted to stop the spreadNortherners often felt superiorBut many made money off of the slave trade and products of slaveryDiscuss resentment of blacks in North, ie. The 1863 NYC riotsLincoln quote, P. 184Douglass quote, P. 178
11The Economic Issue of Slavery North SouthMore industrialLabor provided by growing immigrantsSlavery was not really useful, so generally illegalThough northern factories depended upon southern cottonCotton was “King”Large plantations needed enormous amounts of laborSouthern economy dependent upon slave labor
12Political Issues of Slavery North SouthTradition of a strong central governmentWorried about losing control of the SenateTradition of “states rights”Federal government should be weakWorried about losing control of the Senate
13Women’s MovementWomen had been a strong part of the Abolitionist MovementAlso in temperance, anti-poverty, and prison reformsDisproportionately QuakerRejected the “Separate Sphere”Established belief that women had their special roles—in the home, raising children, etc.
14Seneca Falls (NY) Meeting, 1848 1st national conference on women’s rightsAttended by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Dorothea Dix, Angelina & Sarah Grimke, William Lloyd Garrison, & Frederick DouglassDebate as to whether or not calling for suffrage was too radicalFinal resolution demanded suffrage“The Declaration of Rights & Sentiments…”
15Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Both active in AbolitionMovementStanton wrote “TheDeclaration of Sentimentsand “The Woman’s Bible”A revision of Biblicaltexts relating to womenNeither lived to see the19th AmendmentElizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
16Excerpt from the Woman’s Bible Genesis I:27-- So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.“Verse 27 declares the image of God male and female. How then is it possible to make woman an afterthought?…The above texts plainly show the simultaneous creation of man and woman, and their equal importance in the development of the race. All those theories based on the assumption that man was prior in the creation, have no foundation in Scripture.”