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VOCABULARY Abolitionist

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Presentation on theme: "VOCABULARY Abolitionist"— Presentation transcript:

1 VOCABULARY Abolitionist
opponent of slavery: somebody who campaigned against slavery during the 18th and 19th centuries

2 Early Abolitionist Movements
Banned throughout North by 1800 African Colonization Society (ACS) Founded in 1817 in D.C. & Virginia Goal was to relocate free blacks “home” to Africa Set up a colony in Liberia Sent some 13,000 by 1867 In general, more concerned with white welfare than black welfare 1819—Monroe signs law sending all blacks captured being illegally transported into America Monrovia Lincoln’s unwavering support Problems: --expensive --most blacks didn’t want to go “home” --hostile opposition of many northern abolitionists

3 Moderate Abolitionist Goals
End fugitive slave laws End internal slave trade and slavery in D.C. “Free Soil” Party (1848) Born out of the Liberty Party (1840) and formed to stop the spread of slavery Often mostly concerned with preserving the opportunities of poor whites Develops into the Republican Party in 1854

4 Opposition to Abolitionism
Necessary Evil Would kill the economies of North AND South Fear of millions of free blacks Positive Good The “Benevolent Institution” Slavery “civilized” blacks Slaves better treated than free industrial workers Actually some calls to extend slavery to white workers Abolitionism might lead to a War Widespread racism “natural” position for “inferior” blacks

5 Radical Abolitionist Goals
David Walker, black man, published “Walker’s Appeal” in 1829 Called for the end of slavery by all means necessary, openly called for violence against slave owners Garrison disagreed Found mysteriously dead in 1830 Lane Rebels Students of Lane College and Seminary, products of the 2nd Great Awakening, who wrote and spoke against racism and inequality. Weld & Tappan bros. (inspired H. B. Stowe) Zinn, P. 344

6 William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879
Most concerned with effect on blacks Believed in inherent total and complete equality of all races Immediate and total freeing of all slaves and full citizenship Would not compromise Published The Liberator American Anti-Slavery Society 250,000 members by 1832 His radicalism divided abolitionists Total pacifist Saw any force as violent; “The Constitution is a pact with the Devil” Total equality for women Northern disunion from South Garrison reading Burned copy of Const on 7/4/54 Hated, hunted, etc. Came to grudgingly accept Civil War --cheered by thousands at reading of 13th Amendment Women & London Anti-Slavery Society meeting in 1840 William Lloyd Garrison,

7 Frederick Douglass,

8 Frederick Douglass Born a slave; white father, black mother
Self-taught to read and write Escaped in 1838 (age 20) Abolitionist speaker in US & England Wrote a very influential autobiography Insisted on complete social & economic equality, not just end of slavery Also an advocate for women’s equality Story of first public address & Garrison’s response Read July 4th Address

9 The Dispute over Slavery
Social/Moral Issues Economic Issues Political Issues Slavery is not the only cause of the War, but all the other causes seem to have their roots in slavery.

10 The Social/Moral Issue of Slavery
North South Saw slaves as property, not citizens Argued that slavery was good for the slaves Fighting for the “Southern way of life” Fearful of blacks if they were freed Some were abolitionists But only a small minority were active abolitionists Most just wanted to stop the spread Northerners often felt superior But many made money off of the slave trade and products of slavery Discuss resentment of blacks in North, ie. The 1863 NYC riots Lincoln quote, P. 184 Douglass quote, P. 178

11 The Economic Issue of Slavery
North South More industrial Labor provided by growing immigrants Slavery was not really useful, so generally illegal Though northern factories depended upon southern cotton Cotton was “King” Large plantations needed enormous amounts of labor Southern economy dependent upon slave labor

12 Political Issues of Slavery
North South Tradition of a strong central government Worried about losing control of the Senate Tradition of “states rights” Federal government should be weak Worried about losing control of the Senate

13 Women’s Movement Women had been a strong part of the Abolitionist Movement Also in temperance, anti-poverty, and prison reforms Disproportionately Quaker Rejected the “Separate Sphere” Established belief that women had their special roles—in the home, raising children, etc.

14 Seneca Falls (NY) Meeting, 1848
1st national conference on women’s rights Attended by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Dorothea Dix, Angelina & Sarah Grimke, William Lloyd Garrison, & Frederick Douglass Debate as to whether or not calling for suffrage was too radical Final resolution demanded suffrage “The Declaration of Rights & Sentiments…”

15 Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
Both active in Abolition Movement Stanton wrote “The Declaration of Sentiments and “The Woman’s Bible” A revision of Biblical texts relating to women Neither lived to see the 19th Amendment Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony

16 Excerpt from the Woman’s Bible
Genesis I:27-- So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. “Verse 27 declares the image of God male and female. How then is it possible to make woman an afterthought?…The above texts plainly show the simultaneous creation of man and woman, and their equal importance in the development of the race. All those theories based on the assumption that man was prior in the creation, have no foundation in Scripture.”

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