Chapter 18. Background to the Conflict Pre-Civil War Days
Differences Divide North and South Regional Differences –North More factories People began moving to the cities to work Less people were farming People from other countries moved to the North Population grew rapidly to over 19 million PEOPLE!!!
Plantation Life –Huge plantations Needed a lot of workers Used slave labor
The South Farming remained the main way to earn a living –Most were small one family farms Cut lumber, raised cattle, and raised just enough food for their own families Population was a lot smaller (11 million) than in the North (19 million)
The Slave Economy Many people began to turn against slavery Cost of owning slaves was too high for most Most slaves worked on large plantations. Very few white Southerners could afford to own slaves.
Question Why was slavery an accepted institution in the south even if they knew it was wrong????
“King Cotton” Cotton was hard to prepare for market –The little seeds had to be separated from the cotton. –This was very hard to do and took a LOT of TIME –Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin Made cleaning cotton easier Farmers grew more cotton and made more money Needed more slaves to work the cotton
North and South Disagree States’ Rights –South didn’t like depending on the North’s manufactured goods –Thought the North was getting RICH off of them
Slavery Issue Slavery –Settlers from the South who moved west took their slaves –Settlers from the North didn’t own slaves and thought slavery was wrong. –WHO would WIN Would there be slavery in the new territories or NOT???
Lesson 2. Africans in Slavery and Freedom Life Under Slavery –S–S–S–Slave Codes Laws for slaves –S–S–S–Slaves could not leave owners’ land –C–C–C–Could not buy or sell goods –N–N–N–Not allowed to learn to read or write –T–T–T–Treated as property with very few privileges
Coping with Slavery –S–S–S–Spirituals Formed close knit groups to help each other Sang religious songs to give them strength
Overseers Hired to watch the slaves work and punish them if they fell behind.
Fighting Back Fighting Back –M–M–M–Most resisted slavery ( act against) –Q–Q–Q–Quiet ways they resisted Broke tools, left gates open to let the farm animals out, let boats drift away, hid stuff the owners needed and acted like they knew nothing about it at all
John Brown’s Rebellion John Brown’s rebellion at Harper’s Ferry –A–A–A–A white abolitionist –S–S–S–Stole guns from Harper’s Ferry warehouse to give to slaves –C–C–C–Caught, tried, and hanged
Violent Resistance –V–V–V–Violent ways to resist Nat Turner’s Revolt –L–L–L–Led an attack killing 57 people –H–H–H–He and others were caught, tried in court, and hanged
Running Away Running Away –M–M–M–Many chose to run away –F–F–F–Found safe places to hide Indians protected some Hid in forest, swamps, and mountains Some made it to the free North, some to Canada and others went south to Mexico Many were helped by the Underground Railroad Many were caught and punished for trying to escape.
The Underground Railroad –S–S–S–System of escape routes leading to freedom –M–M–M–Members were called conductors –H–H–H–Hiding places were called stations –H–H–H–Harriet Tubman was most famous An escaped slave Returned to the South over 20 times to help others
Free Africans Not all Africans were slaves –S–S–S–Some were former slaves freed by their owners –O–O–O–Others had bought their freedom –S–S–S–Some had escaped to freedom –M–M–M–Many lived in the cities where they had a better chance to work
Life for Africans… Life for most Africans, free or not, was still hard because: –U–U–U–Unwelcome in many places –O–O–O–Often treated unfairly –H–H–H–Had little freedom –N–N–N–Not allowed to vote or meet in groups –C–C–C–Could not attend school or have certain jobs Whites Only
New Compromises Henry Clay –W–W–W–Worked hard to settle differences dividing the nation. –C–C–C–Congressman from Kentucky –F–F–F–Free state: didn’t want slavery. –S–S–S–Slave state: wanted slavery –E–E–E–Everything was EVEN until Missouri became a state.
The Missouri Compromise Asked to join the U.S. as a slave state This would make more slave states than free. Missouri would join as a slave state AND Maine would join as a free state. Imaginary line would be drawn through the rest of the Louisiana territory
Solutions to the Problem North of the line = Free States South of the line = Slave states
Results of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 Kept the peace for nearly 30 years Six new states joined the Union – 3 slave and 3 free….still equal in number AND THEN along came…California
The Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay to the rescue AGAIN California = Free New Mexico and Utah territories= people would decide
Fugitive Slave Law A new law that said: –A–A–A–Anyone caught helping slaves escape would be punished. –I–I–I–If you found a runaway slave, you had to return them to their owner.
Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser Died in 1852 Never gave up hope in finding peaceful solutions to problems One his grave marker it says, –“–“–“–“I know no North – no South – No East – No West”
Hopes for Peace Fade Kansas-Nebraska Act Gave people living there the choice by voting Hundreds moved in to “vote” on whether to be a free or slave state. Tempers FLARED and over 200 people were killed in the dispute Nicknamed “ Bleeding Kansas”
Dred Scott Case Supreme Court ruled that once a slave, living in a free state, didn’t change that. Said Scott had “none of the rights and privileges” of American citizens Also said Congress had no right to outlaw slavery because the Constitution protects people’s right to own PROPERTY and slaves were PROPERTY!!!
Abraham Lincoln works for Change Violence because of the Kansas-Nebraska act got everyone’s attention Abraham Lincoln was against the SPREAD of slavery Republican Party formed to fight the spread of slavery. Lincoln ran for Senator Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas- Nebraska Act, was his OPPONENT! The battle is ON………
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Abraham Lincoln Tall, thin man from the frontier Wore plain dark clothes Not well known Stephen Douglas Heavy and a foot shorter than Lincoln Well educated Wore fine clothes Senator Well known Both were powerful public speakers
Douglas Each new state should decide the slavery question for itself.
Lincoln “The framers of the Constitution intended slavery to end.” The problem is that slavery is WRONG!
Senate Winner Stephen Douglas was re-elected to the Senate. But….now everyone knew who Abraham Lincoln was!!! Douglas Wins!
The Election of 1860 Democratic Party candidate: Douglas Democratic Party south: Breckinridge Republican Party: LINCOLN
Stephen A. Douglas West should decide for themselves about slavery.
John Breckinridge Democratic candidate popular with southerners Government should allow slavery everywhere in the West.
Abraham Lincoln Republican candidate Against the SPREAD of slavery Promised not to stop slavery in the South where it was already practiced. Said he hoped it would one day END there, too.
Worried White Southerners Many in the South were afraid if Lincoln were elected, slavery would be outlawed. Some even said they would LEAVE the Union if Lincoln was elected.
Lincoln Elected President November 6, 1860 December 20, 1860 South Carolina’s leaders seceded from the Union. Later SIX other southern states seceded: –M–M–M–Mississippi –F–F–F–Florida –A–A–A–Alabama –G–G–G–Georgia –L–L–L–Louisiana –T–T–T–Texas
The Confederate States of America South Carolina Mississippi Florida Louisiana Alabama Georgia Texas
Fort Sumter Some advised Lincoln to “Let the states go” Others said, “Give in on the slavery question.” Still others said, “Use the ARMY to end their revolt!”
Lincoln’s Choices He wanted to prevent war. “We are not enemies, but friends.” THE VERY NEXT DAY An important message came from Major Robert Anderson commander at Fort Sumter:
Urgent! Message from Commander Anderson Supplies at the Fort are almost gone. If new supplies are not sent soon, we will be forced to surrender the fort to the Confederacy.
What to Do??? If I send supplies…Southerners might attack. If I send troops….Southerners WILL attack. If I do nothing…the commander will have to surrender.
Decision Lincoln decided to send supply ships And see what the Southerners would do
Confederate President Davis Davis decided to take over the fort BEFORE the supply ships arrived. Demanded them to surrender. NEVER! The Confederate troops FIRED on the fort, Major Anderson and his men ran out of ammunition and had to give up.
The Civil War has Begun! Lincoln called for Americans to join the army to stop the rebellion. Frightened southern states not in the Confederacy now joined with the other 7 states. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina 11 States Strong