Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8. Abolition – movement to outlaw slavery William Lloyd Garrison Owner of the The Liberator (anti-slavery paper) 3 out of 4 early subscribers."— Presentation transcript:
Abolition – movement to outlaw slavery William Lloyd Garrison Owner of the The Liberator (anti-slavery paper) 3 out of 4 early subscribers were African American Founded New England Anti- Slavery Society (1832) In 1832, a Boston mob dragged Garrison through the town at the end of a rope.
“Free persons on color” = 6% of the total population in 1860. In the South, free blacks = 3% of population. Black codes- laws passed by states and municipalities denying many rights of citizenship to free black people before the Civil War.
Most of the free black population in the South lived in the Upper South. Northern cities offered free black people, jobs, and land space to start their churches and other associations.
David Walker – free black from North Carolina Published Appeal to the Colored citizens of the World (1829) Became free because his mother was a free black Advised African Americans to fight for freedom His freedom, however, did not shield him from witnessing firsthand the degradations and injustices of slavery. He witnessed much misery in his youth, including one disturbing episode of a son who was forced to whip his mother until she died. Walker travelled throughout the country, eventually settling in Boston. But even in that free northern city, with its prevalent discrimination, life was less than ideal for its black residents. Still, Walker apparently fared well, setting up a used clothing store during the 1820s.
Born into slavery; learned how to read and write from his master’s wife. Held a skilled job as a ship caulker Borrowed the identity of a free black sailor and his official carrying papers. Once he reached New York he was FREE!!!!!!! Started The North Star anti-slavery newspaper (1847)
Lower South- South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Cotton was the main crop. Cotton output went from 73,000 bales in 1800 to 2 million bales by mid-century, thanks to better technology (cotton gin and better seed variety) and fertile new land.
Slave labor accounted for 90 % of cotton production. Plantations were large productive areas specializing in a cash crop (cotton, corn, etc.), employed at least 20 slaves, and were the leading economic institutions in the Lower South.
Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation
Planters were considered the most important social group, made up of less than 5% of white families, yet controlled 40% of the slaves, cotton output, and total agricultural wealth.
Planters had the best land. Gang system- organization and supervision of slave field hands into working teams on Southern plantations. Teams were made of men and women, had to work at a steady pace, or be lashed.
Average rate of return on money invested on each slave = 10% a year. Price of an average male slave in 1815 =$215; in 1860, $900. Female slaves of childbearing age were valued almost as high as male slaves. Large and very profitable regional market in slaves.
The South had 10% of the nation’s population as of 1860. However, the Lower South had the smallest urban population and the fewest factories. From 1820-1860 urban slavery decreased from 22% to 10%.
Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina. The Upper South lacked the fertile soil and long growing season needed to grow cotton, rice, and sugar. Less need for slaves (slave population was half that of the Lower South)
After the 1850s, Upper South farmers and planters, used less slave labor and focused more on thrifty, efficient production of grain and livestock. Reasons for slave decline Agricultural reform Economic diversification Expansion of urban manufactoring
Slave codes- a series of laws passed mainly in the Southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to define the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them. Whippings or lashings were the most common form of punishment.
Planters gave slaves two sets of clothing (one for summer and one for winter). Housing was usual a 15 x 15 foot room cabin for five to six slaves to share. 15-20% of plantation slaves were house servants or skilled artisans who had lighter workloads than those in the fields.
Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.
Most important thing to a slave was its family. Both parents were present in two-thirds of slave families. Most slaves fathers did extra work and risked punishment to better support and defend their families. Parents concentrated on teaching their children survival skills
A variety of African religions survived in America. Most slaves followed the religion of their ancestors, believing in the natural and spiritual worlds, accepting power of ghosts over the living, and relied on chants as a form of expression. Many slaves favored to practice the religion of their master. No more than 20% of slaves had converted to Christianity. Most planters favored Christianity among the slaves only if the planters had control.
Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion- Slave revolt that failed when Gabriel Prosser, a slave preacher and blacksmith, organized about 50 armed slaves for an attack on Richmond, Virginia, in 1800. Prosser and 25 of his followers were executed by state authorities before the revolt took place.
Denmark Vesey’s Conspiracy- Slave revolt planned to seize control of Charleston in 1822 and escape to freedom in Haiti (a free black republic), but ended up being betrayed by other slaves. Vesey was a literate carpenter and lay preacher in Charleston who had bought his freedom 75 of the conspirators were executed.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion- Uprising of slaves in Southampton, Virginia, in the summer of 1831. Nat Turner was a literate field hand driven by prophetic visions of black vengeance against white oppressors. Went of a murderous rampage in August of 1831, killing Turner’s owner and 60 other white people. Turner and about 30 other slaves were executed for the deadly revolt.
Families of planter families (those who held a minimum of 20 slaves) = 3% of Southern families in 1860. Plantation mistresses was in charge of the household staff (cooking, cleaning, gardening, dispensing of medicine and clothing to slaves). In some cases, when the master of the plantation went away on business, his wife would manage the plantation accounts.
Virginia governor John Floyd Secretly wished that slavery would be abolished Thomas Jefferson’s grandson also fights for abolishment of slavery. Antebellum – pre-Civil War South
Planter’s wives complained about isolation from other white women and that managing of slaves was a burden. They were also embarrassed by their husbands who kept slave mistresses or sexually abused slave women.
Three-fourths of Southern white families owned no slaves. Farmers formed tight networks of friends and family. Yeoman farmers were proud of their independence. Interests of yeoman farmers and planters often helped each other in areas where small farms and plantations were.
About 15% of rural white families owned neither land nor slaves (poor whites). Free workers (Irish and German immigrants) gradually replaced slaves in urban labor markets.
Southerners believed slavery to be a necessary evil, that maintained racial peace. Southern evangelicals used the Bible to support the use of slaves. Believed blacks were naturally lazy and were inherently inferior to whites. Gag rule – rule limiting or preventing debate about an issue. (stopped Congress from discussing the abolishment of slavery