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1 Identifying and Protecting Potential Victims of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Identifying and Protecting Potential Victims of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Identifying and Protecting Potential Victims of Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery

2 Migrant Help Migrant Help’s Vision Our vision is for a global society that protects migrants, treats them with respect and enables them to become successful members of their communities. Migrant Help is a UK charity that has over 50 years experience of delivering support and advice services to migrants in the UK. We provide individuals with the resources and support they need to find safety, access appropriate services and information and develop greater independence. Migrant Help provides a wide range of services across the UK working with the following client groups: New asylum claimants and refugees EU nationals Foreign national prisoners Victims of modern day slavery (human trafficking) 2

3 What is Human Trafficking? Human Trafficking & Modern Day Slavery is an international organised crime, with the exploitation of human beings for profit at its core. It is an abuse of basic rights, with organised criminals preying on vulnerable people to make money. Victims are often brought to the UK from abroad. However, we know that trafficking also occurs within the UK and that children in particular are increasingly vulnerable to falling victim to exploitation. Human Trafficking is a process, starting with the recruitment and ending with the exploitation of the victim There are various forms of exploitation, most common in UK: - Sexual exploitation- Labour exploitation - Domestic servitude- Forced begging/ stealing - Benefit fraud 3

4 4 Definition: The Palermo Protocol Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children Article 3 of the Palermo Protocol defines human trafficking: a) ‘Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. ‘Exploitation’ shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

5 Human Trafficking: Three Part Process Process Means Purpose RecruitmentThreat of forceexploitation TransportationUse of forceProstitution of others TransferOther forms of coercionOther forms of sexual exploitation HarbouringAbduction Domestic Servitude Receipt of personsFraudForced labour or slavery Deception Slavery or practices similar to slavery Abuse of ones powerRemoval of organs Abuse of another’s position of vulnerability Benefit/tenancy fraud, sham marriage Giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve ‘consent’ Forced Begging/stealing

6 Means: Control Traffickers exert control over their victims to exploit and to continue to exploit them Why don’t victims escape? Methods of control : - Psychological abuse and control - Violence and threats, against the victim and their loved ones - Removal of identity documents - Imprisonment - Debt bondage - Movement 6

7 Purpose: Exploitation The recruitment and movement of the potential victim of trafficking must have been for the purpose of exploitation. - Sexual exploitation - Labour exploitation - Domestic servitude (slavery) - Benefit/tenancy fraud - Forced criminality (stealing, begging, cannabis cultivation etc) - Forced begging - Forced marriage - Organ removal (including blood) - Baby farming + any other way to make money out of another person. 7

8 What is the difference between People Smuggling and Human Trafficking? Simply put, the main technical differences between human trafficking and people smuggling are: Consent - people smuggling, while often undertaken in dangerous or degrading conditions, involves consent. Trafficking victims, on the other hand, have either never consented or if they initially consented, that consent has been rendered meaningless by the coercive, deceptive or abusive action of the traffickers. Exploitation - people smuggling ends with the migrants' arrival at their destination, whereas trafficking involves the ongoing exploitation of the victim. Internal Trafficking - smuggling is always transnational, whereas trafficking may not be. Trafficking can occur regardless of whether victims are taken to another country or moved internally 8

9 9 Signs and Indicators of Trafficking General Indicators Distrustful of authorities Expression of fear or anxiety Signs of psychological trauma (inc. PTSD) The person acts as if instructed by another Injuries apparently a result of assault or controlling measures Evidence of control over movement Found in or connected to a type of location likely to be used for exploitation Restriction of movement and confinement to the workplace or to a limited area Passport or documents held by someone else Lack of access to medical care Limited social contact Limited contact with family Doesn’t know home or work address Perception of being bonded by debt Money is deducted from salary for food or accommodation Threat of being handed over to authorities Threats against the individual or their family members Being placed in a dependency situation No or limited access to bathroom or hygiene facilities Any other, please provide details in section F Indicators of sexual exploitation Adverts for services mentioning ethnic/national groups Sleeping on premises Tattoos or ‘ownership’ marks Movement between brothels/saunas Limited and sexualised clothing Limited language only able to speak sexual words Forced, intimidated or coerced into providing services of a sexual nature Subjected to crimes such as abduction, assault or rape Indicators of labour exploitation Withholding of wages/excessive deductions Retention of ID Threats of, or actual physical harm Restriction of movement Imposed place of accommodation Employer unable to produce documents required when employing migrant workers Employer unable to provide record of wages paid to workers Poor/non-existent H&S Forced Marriage Indicators of domestic servitude Living and working with a family in a private home Not dining with family No private space Sleeping in shared space (e.g. kitchen) Forced to work in excess of normal hours or on call 24 hrs Employer accuses person of theft Not allowed to leave house without the employer

10 Why wouldn’t a PVoT self- identify? Victims of trafficking rarely identify themselves as victims because they; are in fear of retribution(s) are in fear of imprisonment feel guilt or shame about their situation/ experience do not want to be labelled or stigmatised are now dependent on the abuser (“Stockholm syndrome”) consider the trafficking situation “better” than their previous one are unaware of their rights and what human trafficking is are unaware of the assistance available to a victim of trafficking 10

11 The National Referral Mechanism The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) is a framework for identifying victims of Human Trafficking and ensuring they receive the appropriate protection and support. The NRM is also the mechanism through which the United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre (UKHTC) collects data about victims. This information contributes to building a clearer picture about the scope of human trafficking in the UK. Why refer into the NRM? Referring a PVoT into the NRM encourages the sharing of information between agencies and can help to ensure an appropriate safeguarding response. 11

12 How Does the NRM Work? First responders To be referred to the NRM, potential victims of trafficking must first be referred to one of the UK’s two competent authorities - the UKHTC or UK Home Office (see below). This initial referral will generally be handled by an authorised agency, such as a police force, the UKBA, Social Services or some NGOs. The referring authority is known as the ‘First Responder’. A ‘First Responder’ in the NRM is a member of staff within certain public bodies who has direct or indirect contact with a person who is believed to have been trafficked. A range of agencies are designated as First Responders; National Crime Agency(NCA) Local Authority Home Office Border Force Police TARA Project Migrant Help Kalayaan Medaille Trust Salvation Army Gangmasters Licensing Authority NSPCC/CTAIL Barnardo‘s POPPY Project Health and Social Care Trusts (Northern Ireland) Unseen The First Responder completes an NRM Form and submits it to the UKHTC/ UKVI so that the case can be processed through the NRM framework. 12

13 Specialist Support Services provided by Migrant Help As a minimum we provide: Physical, psychological and emotional support Spiritual support when appropriate Legal representation Financial support Education 13

14 How Migrant Help assist beneficiaries Safe and secure accommodation Food An allowance Access to health care, dentistry, opticians, counselling & mental health services Assistance to gain benefits, training and employment Interpretation and translation Legal advice – in order to make an informed decision 14

15 How we help cont. Referral to specialists such as sexual health, substance misuse services Help with relevant ID documentation/replacement Papers – Embassy appointments An environment conducive to encouraging cooperation with law enforcement agencies Contact with family & friends OISC Level 1 advice 15

16 How we help cont. Assistance to return home Advocacy & navigation through the NRM Support while attending court A shoulder to cry on! 16

17 17 24/7 Referral line 07766 668781

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