Presentation on theme: "The Idea and The Practice. Slavery What were the scale and scope of slavery in the Americas? Who conducted slavery, and where in the Americas was slavery."— Presentation transcript:
Slavery What were the scale and scope of slavery in the Americas? Who conducted slavery, and where in the Americas was slavery practiced? How was slavery justified? How does slavery relate to democracy as a form of government?
Colonial Slavery in the Americas Virtually all European imperial powers brought slaves to their colonies in the Americas. Virtually all sections of colonial South, Central, and North America practiced slavery.
Slavery in the U.S.A. 1860 ALL STATES cooperated with and enabled slavery.
Abolition of Slavery in the Americas 1803-Upper Canada 1804-Haiti 1808-U.S importation 1821-Ecuador 1823-Chile 1829-Mexico 1831-Bolivia 1824-Central America 1842-Uruguay 1851-Columbia 1853-Argentina 1854-Peru, Venezuela 1863-U.S. (partial) 1865-U.S. 1873-Puerto Rico 1886-Cuba 1888-Brazil
How did Europeans and Americans Debate Massive African Slavery? What did you learn from your research?
John Calhoun George Fitzhugh Thomas Paine Benjamin Banneker to Jefferson Jefferson to Banneker
Tradition As Justification for Slavery Slavery had been practiced universally throughout history Ancient Greece Ancient Egypt Ancient China Roman Empire Middle Eastern Empires Mayan & Aztec Empires European Kingdoms
Religion As Justification for Slavery The Christian Bible contains numerous approving references to slavery.Christian Bible The Christian “Doctrine of Discovery” or “Doctrine of Conquest” explicitly approved of slavery.
Philosophy & Science As Justification for Slavery Historically, slavery had been considerd simply as a by-product of war. From the 16 th -20 th Centuries, Philosophy and Science were used to associate slavery with the superiority and inferiority of human groups, and with race.
“Great Chain of Being” Ancient Greeks Life forms can be organized in a hierarchical order Higher life forms are superior to lower life forms Lower life forms serve and are used by higher life forms
Medieval Expressions of The Great Chain of Being “Humans” were still a single category
17 th -18 th Centuries Where Should the “Human Line” Be Drawn? Slavery morally problematicSlavery morally justified
18 th Century Hierarchy of Human Types Biological superiority and inferiority within the human category between races was established.
18 th & 19 th Centuries Race and Psycho-Social Patterns 1. Americanus. Native American males were supposedly red; had black hair and sparse beards; were stubborn; prone to anger; "free"; and governed by traditions. Thus, this form of Homo sapiens was definitely inferior and uncivilized. 2. Asiaticus. The male Asian was said to be "yellowish, melancholy, endowed with black hair and brown eyes...severe, conceited, and stingy. He puts on loose clothing. He is governed by opinion." Thus, like the aforementioned type of Homo sapiens, the Asiaticus could only be a mediocre prototype. 3. Africanus. The male of this subset, according to Linnaeus, could be recognized by his skin tone, face structure, and curly hair. This kind was apparently cunning, passive, and inattentive, and ruled by impulse. The female of this kind was also apparently shameless, because "they lactate profusely.” 4. Europeaus. The males of this subset were supposedly "changeable, clever, and inventive. He puts on tight clothing. He is governed by laws.” Therefore, being the most civilized of the Homo sapiens, the Europeaus was obviously the most superior type in Charles Linnaeus's view Biological differences were connected to psychological and cultural differences to identify superior and inferior races.
Slaves as Sub-human Property " The slave, being personal chattel, is at all times liable to be sold absolutely, or mortgaged or leased, at the will of his master.” (S. Carolina) “…be it enacted and declared by this Grand Assembly if any slave resists his master... and by the extremity of the correction should chance to die, that his death shall not be accounted a felony, but the master (or that other person appointed by the master to punish him) be acquitted from molestation, since it cannot be presumed that premeditated malice (which alone makes murder a felony) should induce any man to destroy his own estate. “ (Virginia) Mr. WIGFALL, the new Senator from Texas, in one of his recent speeches in the Senate, said he denied that "we at the South draw any distinction between slaves and any other property. We ask simply," said he, "that that property shall be put upon the same footing as every other species of property, to the same extent as lands, horses, mules and hogs. We ask that, and we ask nothing more." (Texas)