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Slavery, Politics, and Sectionalism “Can we as a Nation continue together permanently – forever – half slave and half free?” Abraham Lincoln, 1855.

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Presentation on theme: "Slavery, Politics, and Sectionalism “Can we as a Nation continue together permanently – forever – half slave and half free?” Abraham Lincoln, 1855."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slavery, Politics, and Sectionalism “Can we as a Nation continue together permanently – forever – half slave and half free?” Abraham Lincoln, 1855

2 North and South grow-up very differently: North = industrialization – produces 90% of manufactured goods North = industrialization – produces 90% of manufactured goods Many immigrants Many immigrants South = much slower to industrialize – remains plantation economy South = much slower to industrialize – remains plantation economy Less immigrants b/c jobs filled with African Americans (enslave and free) Less immigrants b/c jobs filled with African Americans (enslave and free)

3 Slavery HUGE part of southern life: African Americans in Southern Plantations as of 1860 African Americans in Southern Plantations as of 1860 % of total population South Carolina = 59% South Carolina = 59% Mississippi = 55% Mississippi = 55% Louisiana = 49% Louisiana = 49% Alabama = 45% Alabama = 45% Florida = 45% Florida = 45% Georgia = 44% Georgia = 44% North Carolina = 36% North Carolina = 36%

4 Missouri Compromise, 1820 – Missouri comes in as slave state, but everything from then on above 36°30’ would be free

5 Slavery in the new Territories…. Wilmot Proviso 1846– declared no slavery in the Mexican cession Wilmot Proviso 1846– declared no slavery in the Mexican cession Passed house twice, defeated in senate Passed house twice, defeated in senate

6 “The North is going to stick the Wilmot amendment to every appropriation and then all the South will vote against any measure thus clogged. Finally a tremendous struggle will take place and perhaps Polk in starting one war may find half a dozen on his hands. I tell you, the prospect ahead is dark, cloudy, thick and gloomy” – Congressman Alexander H. Stephens

7 Popular Sovereignty: Let the territories decide! Popular Sovereignty: Let the territories decide! Free-Soilers: NOT abolitionists, just against the expansion of slavery. Free-Soilers: NOT abolitionists, just against the expansion of slavery. Van Buren runs as candidate in ’48 election Van Buren runs as candidate in ’48 election 1849 – 15 free and 15 slave: but CA is ready to join the Union as a free state… – 15 free and 15 slave: but CA is ready to join the Union as a free state…..

8 Compromise of 1850 CA = free state CA = free state Utah and New Mex. = pop. Sovereignty Utah and New Mex. = pop. Sovereignty Stricter fugitive slave law Stricter fugitive slave law District of Columbia will not abolish slavery, but cannot trade slaves District of Columbia will not abolish slavery, but cannot trade slaves The Great Compromiser: Henry Clay

9 Still no agreement and the arguments continue... Old guard Webster and Calhoun duke it out on the floor of the Senate, Clay urges both N and S to approve it, the alternative…. War…. Old guard Webster and Calhoun duke it out on the floor of the Senate, Clay urges both N and S to approve it, the alternative…. War….

10 “And such a war as it would be, following the dissolution of the Union! Sir, we may search the pages of history, and none so ferocious, so bloody, so implacable, so exterminating…would rage with such violence…. I implore gentlemen, I adjure them, whether from the South or the North… to pause at the edge of the precipice, before the fearful and dangerous leap be taken into the yawning abyss below.” – Henry Clay, Nov

11 Stephen Douglas to the Rescue! - Younger crew steps in and takes control - Taylor dies, and Millard Fillmore takes over – he supports compromise - Douglas unbundles compromise and each part is passed - The Union is SAVED! for now…..

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13 Uneasy truce…. North resists enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act… North resists enforcement of Fugitive Slave Act… “The colored men’s rights are less than those of a jackass. No man can take away a jackass without submitting the matter to 12 men in any part of this country. A black man may be carried away without any reference to a jury. It is only necessary to claim him, and that some villain should swear to his identity.” – Frederick Douglass

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15 Kansas-Nebraska Act Nebraska wants to be territory, but it is a free state above 36°, 30° Nebraska wants to be territory, but it is a free state above 36°, 30° Douglas suggests dividing it in two states and using pop. Sov. Douglas suggests dividing it in two states and using pop. Sov. Super controversial, but passes after months of debate Super controversial, but passes after months of debate

16 BLEEDING KANSAS Missourians flood to Kansas to vote for slavery – Lecompton Constitution Missourians flood to Kansas to vote for slavery – Lecompton Constitution Out-raged free-soilers write own constitution w/ no slavery, form government in Topeka Out-raged free-soilers write own constitution w/ no slavery, form government in Topeka VIOLENCE – John Brown kills five pro-slavery men to get “revenge” which triggers more violence VIOLENCE – John Brown kills five pro-slavery men to get “revenge” which triggers more violence 200 people killed 200 people killed

17 Brooks-Sumner Incident

18 Kansas eventually enters Union as a free state…. Kansas eventually enters Union as a free state…. Buchanan elected pres. in ‘56 Buchanan elected pres. in ‘56

19 Dred Scott Decision Scott sues master’s widow for freedom, wins locally Scott sues master’s widow for freedom, wins locally Supreme Court rules Scott cannot sue b/c he is private property and not a citizen Supreme Court rules Scott cannot sue b/c he is private property and not a citizen Precedent: Precedent: No rights for blacks No rights for blacks Slaves = property – constitution can’t take away Slaves = property – constitution can’t take away Therefore Missouri Compromise = illegal Therefore Missouri Compromise = illegal

20 Free-Soil Ideology Fearful of the “slaveocracy” or “Slave Power Conspiracy” (EX: Ostend Manifesto and Lecompton Constitution….) Fearful of the “slaveocracy” or “Slave Power Conspiracy” (EX: Ostend Manifesto and Lecompton Constitution….) Slavery conflict with Amer. Free labor ideals Slavery conflict with Amer. Free labor ideals See “The Impending Crisis” in Doc. packet See “The Impending Crisis” in Doc. packet Birth of REPUBLICAN party Birth of REPUBLICAN party

21 Pro-Slavery Argument Slavery = good thing Slavery = good thing Slaves have better conditions than Northern workers Slaves have better conditions than Northern workers Only way two races could live together Only way two races could live together Economic prosperity Economic prosperity Preserves superior Southern way of life Preserves superior Southern way of life


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