SLAVERY RESISTANCE American Colonization Society Liberia Colony
MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820 Kept Balance of Power in Congress – MO = Slave, ME = Free. No slavery N. of 36’ 30’ line in Territories.
Jefferson’s Response to Missouri Compromise “But this momentous question, like a firebell in the night awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once the knell of the Union” (knell = signal of death)
Sectionalism Divides America Sectionalism - placing of the needs of one section of the nation over the needs of the whole nation.Sectionalism - placing of the needs of one section of the nation over the needs of the whole nation.
What was the difference between the two sections? The North - Primarily Industrial Economy –Business / industry played major roles. –While the North was not known for its agricultural production it was the largest producer of grain. –Life was faster and commerce important.
What was the difference between the two sections? THE SOUTH - Primarily agricultural. The southern economy was primarily based upon the existence of large family farms known as plantations.THE SOUTH - Primarily agricultural. The southern economy was primarily based upon the existence of large family farms known as plantations. –The plantation economy relied on cheap labor in the form of slaves to produce tobacco and cotton. –The plantation lifestyle produced a slower more leisurely lifestyle. Farmers on the plantation did not do the work themselves. They were referred to as the "gentleman farmer."
What issues created the Sectional Conflict? Slavery - The most important difference between the North and SouthSlavery - The most important difference between the North and South Most Northerners really didn't care about slavery in the beginningMost Northerners really didn't care about slavery in the beginning As time went on, slavery, the existence of it, as well as the extension of slavery into the western territories, became the central issue.As time went on, slavery, the existence of it, as well as the extension of slavery into the western territories, became the central issue.
Representation - The North and South each wanted power to pass laws that would benefit their section.Representation - The North and South each wanted power to pass laws that would benefit their section. –This meant that the more states that became "free" or "slave" meant more votes, both in the House, Senate and Electoral College, for that section of the country.
:Tariffs : - The South resented all - The South resented all tariffs - relied on British tariffs - relied on British imports for more of everyday imports for more of everyday goods. They also needed other nations to purchase cotton from their farms. -The North supported tariffs to protect their growing industries. The South became increasingly angered. -The North supported tariffs to protect their growing industries. The South became increasingly angered. -1828 “The Tariff of Abominations" = the South then argued they had the right of nullification. (nullification - the power of a state to declare a federal law null and void.)
Issue was a direct outgrowth of the South's fear that the North would pass laws that would hurt it's lifestyle. EX: tariffs and anti-slavery lawsStates Rights - Issue was a direct outgrowth of the South's fear that the North would pass laws that would hurt it's lifestyle. EX: tariffs and anti-slavery laws –The South again claimed they had the right of nullification –The South again claimed they had the right of nullification. –These issues together lead to the SECESSION of Southern states. They form the Confederacy. John C. Calhoun Vs. Daniel Webster
SOUTHERN WAY OF LIFE UNDER ATTACK Fuels Sectional Crisis
BLEEDING KANSAS – Murders over slavery expansion (John Brown)
Charles Sumner (N.) “caned” in Senate by Preston Brooks (S.) after made anti-slavery speech
Political Strife… Slavery Divides the Whig Party Whigs – political in-fighting –Southern Whigs were pro-slavery in the territories –Northern Whigs were anti-slavery in the territories Party splits
Nativism – Favor “Native” born (ANTI- IMMIGRANT) OLD v. NEW Immigrants American Party (The “Know Nothings”) – –Southern Know- Nothing were pro- slavery in the territories –Northern Know- Nothing were anti- slavery in the territories
“GANGS OF NEW YORK” Old Immigrant “Natives” (English, German, Dutch) (NW Europe) vs. New Immigrant Irish (E. & S. Europe)
Free-Soil Party (1848) opposed extension of slavery into territories (Lincoln) threat of slaves taking free white men’s job… not necessarily abolitionists “Free Trade, Free Labor, Free Speech, and Free Men.”
REPUBLICAN PARTY IS BORN 1854 Took in Free-Soilers, N. Whigs and Democrats Opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act, no slavery in territories, wide range of views –Election of 1856… slavery in the territories the BIG issue in politics –Main opponent = S. Democrats
JOHN BROWN STRIKES AGAIN RAID ON HARPER’S FERRY ARSENAL OCTOBER 16, 1859
John Brown John Brown wanted to free slaves in Virginia In 1859, he raided an arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA with 20 men in order to lead an uprising. He hoped other slaves in the south would join him, but none did. Troops led by Robert E. Lee stopped the rebellion. Brown was tried, convicted & hung. The case of Brown brought more attention to the issue of slavery.
The Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was a slave who traveled with his master from Missouri (slave state) to Illinois & Wisconsin (free states). Scott sued for his freedom since he had been in a free state.
DRED SCOTT DECISION - 1857 USSC said Scott not a citizen – can’t sue Ruled MO Comp. violated 5 th Amendment Can’t restrict where you take your property
The 5 th Amendment No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
The Ruling Slaves were only property. Slave owners had a right to keep their property. Therefore, slavery was upheld. Huge victory for South Scott was given freedom by old owners Chief Justice Taney
Illinois Senate Election of 1858 Stephen A. Douglas (Democrat) & Abraham Lincoln (Republican) ran for 1 Senate seat. Douglas was nicknamed the “Little Giant,” while Lincoln, “the best stump speaker in the West,” towered over him in the series of 7 debates held across the state of Illinois.
Lincoln & Slavery Lincoln attacked the Dred Scott decision, saying “I do not believe it is a constitutional right to hold slaves in a territory of the United States.” He thought slavery was “a moral, social, and political wrong.” He was willing to tolerate slavery in the South, if he had to, but he did not want slavery to expand.
Stephen A. Douglas Douglas wanted the people to decide. This was called popular sovereignty. Douglas said, “the people have the lawful means to introduce [slavery] or exclude it as they please.” This idea became known as the Freeport Doctrine.
Lincoln said in the debates… “A house divided against itself cannot stand…I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect it will cease to be divided.”
Presidential Election of 1860 Although Douglas won the Senate seat in 1858, the local race made Lincoln famous & propelled him into the national spotlight. By opposing slavery, supporting land for farmers, and construction of roads and a transcontinental railroad Lincoln won the Presidential election of 1860. The anti-slavery candidate won, but the nation was still divided.