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Slavery Chapter 9.

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1 Slavery Chapter 9

2 Nat Turner Virginia, 1831 Nat Turner Slave, preacher
Believed God had chosen him to free slaves Turner and followers killed 55 whites 100 blacks slaughtered in the effort to capture Turner 1831 (December) – Jefferson’s grandson presents plan for gradual emancipation in Virginia General Assembly (Vote – 73 to 82)

3 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Santo Domingo (Haiti) L’Ouverture Brilliant, self-educated Leads successful slave revolt 60,000 dead as a result Americans FEAR a slave revolt… and slavery gets MORE BRUTAL

4 Southern views on slavery
1 in 4 own slaves 1 of 7 slave owners possesses more than 10 slavers Most southerners are small farmers, but rich plantation owners dominate politics Sen. John C. Calhoun – “slavery is a positive good… the most safe and stable basis for free institutions in the world.” Albert Gallatin Brown – “slavery is a blessing for the slave, and a blessing to the master.” By 1850 – 30,000 fugitive slaves in the North worth about $15 million (Anthony Burns – captured in 1854 in Boston and returned to slavery

5 John Brown’s Body Chapter 10

6 John Brown 1856 – Civil War in “Bloody” Kansas 1859 – Harper’s Ferry
In may, John Brown and others murder 5 proslavery Kansans Believed he was acting for God 1859 – Harper’s Ferry John and 21 followers attempt to ignite a slave revolt Captured and executed (see pages 57 and 58)


8 Lincoln’s Problem Chapter 11

9 Secession South Carolina – first
Mississippi – one of richest states (Millionaires of Natchez) Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas 7 quickly secede to start Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee follow after Lincoln calls for volunteers to fight

10 Preparing for WAR Richmond (capital of South, industrial center) – exciting place with all war preparations (dreamlike… only thinking of the glory of war) West Virginia secedes from Virginia Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware – border, slave states that stay with Union

11 Free Slaves or Not? Abolitionists want Lincoln to free slaves
Lincoln doesn’t want to anger border states Lincoln says… freeing slaves, losing war, and destroying Union will help NO ONE (slaves or not)

12 North Advantages More men More industry More railroads More food
23 states vs. 11 states 22 million vs. 9 million (population) Almost 3 million soldiers to 1.5 million More industry More railroads More food LINCOLN

13 Southern Advantages Do not have to conquer anyone Skilled fighters
Can play defense Cause? – liberty from government, maintain way of “southern life” Skilled fighters Used to shooting and riding, outdoors Better military leadership

14 Fort Sumter April 1861 Lincoln wants to resupply fort
Confederates take the fort PGT Beauregard

15 The Union Generals Chapter 12

16 Winfield Scott First General in charge
Old, terrible shape… still sharp Knew it would take a few years to win Old Fuss and Feathers Plan: Blockade southern ports Control Mississippi River Send armies from east and west to squeeze Confederacy (Anaconda Plan)

17 George B. McClellan West Point graduate, age 35 Excellent organizer
Need to feed, house, equip MANY PROBLEM – hesitant to fight

18 Lincoln tries more… Fremont Burnside Halleck Hooker Pope Meade Then….

19 Ulysses S. Grant West Point Mexican War Inherited slave… ???
GOOD at FIGHTING “Unconditional Surrender” WINNING in WEST Outkill and Outlast!

20 The Confederate Generals
Chapter 13

21 Southern Generals Soldiering tradition in South James Longstreet
Old Pete or Old War Horse J.E.B. Stuart… “the eyes and ears” One of most daring cavalry leaders Gettysburg error ??? George Picket Friendly, well-like “Picket’s Charge” at Gettysburg

22 Southern Generals Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson
West Point, VMI instructor Strict, intelligent, daring, fearless A WINNER… even when he shouldn’t Very religious What happened to him?

23 Southern Generals Robert E. Lee West Point
Did not want Union to dissolve Had to fight for Virginia Born leader… Jackson would follow him “blindfolded” WINNER… risk taker, genius

24 President Davis’s Problems
Chapter 14

25 The Problems… Not enough food, clothing (shoes), weapons, ships
Poor railroads Surplus of cotton in England No need to interfere with Union blockade English opposed slavery Confederate states acting independently Cannot get tax $ from them Davis couldn’t communicate like Lincoln

26 Choosing Sides Chapter 15

27 War splits nation and families
Clifton brothers – both die at Petersburg, fighting on opposite sides 4 of Lincoln’s brother-in-laws fight for Confederacy (3 died) Henry Clay’s grandsons… 3 for Union and 4 for Confederacy JEB Stuart… Chased by father-in-law ETC. WHY fight for the North? Why South? North – read box on 77, South – their way

28 Did the war make a difference?
Yes… Ended Slavery Preserved Union U.S. committed to democracy through constitutional amendments that promoted fairness (equal opportunity) HOWEVER… easier to change laws than to change ideas and habits Tyranny and persecution and bigotry are forbidden by the Constitution (un-American!)

29 The Soldiers Median age – 24 Many were 18 or 19 Johnny Clem (11)
Confederate Colonel tried to take him prisoner He killed the Colonel and was made a sergeant Eventually, government had to pay cash rewards for volunteers… and both sides had to draft

30 Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight…
Confederates that owned 20 or more slaves did not have to serve (some fought anyway) Northerners could pay someone else to fight if they could afford it Many were farmers… small-town boys… most were never far from home Most signed up for an exciting adventure… but what did they get???

31 War is NOT fun… Long marches Disease Homesickness Bad food Hunger
Long, boring encampments For every man that died in battle, two died of sickness

32 Weapons Sharps rifle – breech-loading, single-shot
Spencer seven-shot – best repeating rifle Gatling – machine gun, 250 rounds per minute MOST soldiers use muzzle loading rifle New weapons are much better…. More accurate, shoot farther… KILL better Fight with old-school tactics using new weapons… MANY die as a result

33 Weapons Hot air balloons… for spying
Submarine… it worked… but not well This was the first “modern” war… No “by-the-rules” orderly skirmish TOTAL WAR In the “old” days… attackers had advantage… now… defenders are winning

34 Willie and Tad The point?
Chapter 17

35 General McClellan’s Campaign
Chapter 18

36 McClellan Takes charge after Bull Run Brings order and pride… DRILLS
Organized 100,000 men 2,500 supply wagons 300 cannons 25,000 animals 600 tons of supplies used each day!

37 McClellan Wants to take Richmond (capital and industrial center)
Attack by boat – Virginia Peninsula (see map on 91) MUD – difficult to move troops and supplies Time for Confederates to prepare Magruder – marching troops all over the place to trick McClellan… it works… moves slower Seven Days Battle is tough on both sides Union retreats eventually

38 Chancellorsville Stonewall is accidentally wounded by friendly fire
Lee says, “He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm.”

39 War at Sea Chapter 19

40 Blockade Union wants to isolate the south… only has 90 ships to do it
Confederates have no navy By time war ends, Union has 700 ships in service Confederates get English to build fast cruisers that can outrun blockade and attack Union merchant ships

41 Iron stronger than wood
Confederates raised the sunken Merrimack and it becomes the Virginia Big, slow, clumsy, and STRONG Creates FEAR in Washington… a super-ship Monitor is built and ships meet at Hampton Roads Neither ship can sink the other… war has changed at sea forever

42 Admiral David Farragut
Takes New Orleans with his fleet… passing two Confederate forts that did everything to stop him… See the BOX on page 97

43 Emancipation Means Freedom
Chapter 20

44 Antietam (Sharpsburg)… 9/17/62
Why should McClellan have been able to crush Lee? Bloodiest day of the war… 23,000 dead What happened after the battle… or what didn’t happen? See page 99 – Lincoln’s visit to McClellan Clara Barton – the Angel of the Battlefield

45 Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln reads it in September of 1862 January 1, 1863, it becomes official What is the impact of this? Douglas – “lift the war into the dignity of a war for progress and civilization” Lincoln signs his full name… not just A. Lincoln

46 Determined Soldiers Chapter 21

47 Contrabands Property seized by the enemy They want to FIGHT!
54th Massachusetts Led by Colonel Robert G. Shaw Bayonet attack at Fort Wagner (Charleston Harbor) Half are wounded, captured or killed Captured white officers that led blacks would have been put to death as criminals Blacks would be sold into slavery 180,000 black soldiers fight for the Union

48 Marching Soldiers Chapter 22

49 Hardtack Armies CONSUME!! Total War – make enemy civilians suffer
Wood… or furniture, books, whatever else to burn Could take your home for their use Could take your vegetables and meat (animals from your farm) Live on flour, coffee, bacon, “hardtack” Total War – make enemy civilians suffer

50 War in the South Most of the fighting is in the South… VA
South is being destroyed Peace movements in North… tired of war Lee wants a big win in the NORTH!!! Stopped at Antietam in September of 1862 Confident after victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville (early summer of 1863) Lee heads for Pennsylvania… George Meade and Union army head after Confederates

51 Gettysburg Day 1 (July 1, 1863) Fahnestock’s store… cleared out and goods shipped to Philadelphia Confederates after some shoes? General Buford holds off Confederates long enough to then secure the best ground… Cemetery Ridge JEB Stuart – Confederate cavalry is off riding and NOT getting info to Lee and others

52 Gettysburg Day 2 (July 2, 1863 Confederates are on Seminary Ridge, about 1 mile from Union troops Confederates trying to flank the Union lines Little Roundtop (Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain in charge of defending it… heroic effort) Culp’s Hill

53 Gettysburg Day 3 (July 3, 1863 Confederates fire artillery at the center of the Union lines for 2 hours, then charge at the center Major General George Pickett leads about 15,000 troops across nearly a mile of open field to charge the Union army… get slaughtered! Longstreet advised Lee against this, but Lee wants to win so badly (he usually did too)

54 Gettysburg Day 3 (July 3, 1863 Winfield Scott Hancock commands Yankees that wait for the charge behind a low stone wall on Cemetery Ridge Confederate General Lewis Armistead leads heroic effort to push into Union line with several hundred Rebels… fails

55 Gettysburg Turning point of the war! Lee did not get big win in the North that he wanted Confederates lose 28,000 men Union loses 23,000 men Thousands of horses are dead Confederates walk home Lincoln wants Meade to ATTACK, but he doesn’t

56 Lee the Fox Chapter 24

57 Lee is brilliant Sends Rebel soldier into Union camp to “inform” them that Rebels are ready to fight again, and this makes Meade hesitant to advance… Rebels get to VA At same time as Gettysburg, Grant takes Vicksburg (Mississippi)… going against the rules to win 48 days… of bombing… eventual starvation

58 Speeches at G-Burg Chapter 25

59 Gettysburg aftermath Citizens busy burying dead and treating wounded (16,000) November 19 Edward Everett President of Harvard, senator, secretary of state, and ambassador to Britain Speaks for 2 hours! Lincoln Speaks from the heart for 2 minutes (page 122)

60 More Battles – will it ever end?
Chapter 26

61 Grant Grant now in charge of Union armies
Southern strategy is to wear North out, and North wants to end this as quickly as possible Grant leads 120,000 to Richmond… Attacks and attacks and attacks (map 125) Battle of the Wilderness… horrible Grant wants to lay siege to Petersburg Confederates “lose” them Pontoon bridges across the James and Appomattox River… page 126

62 Sherman Marches from West
From Tennessee, through Georgia (Atlanta to Savannah), to the Carolinas Squeezes South like an Anaconda! Total War… Sherman’s March to the Sea… 40 mile wide path of destruction (Union soldiers take frustrations out on the South) Victory at Atlanta gets Lincoln reelected in 1864 (against McClellan)

63 The Second Inaugural Chapter 27

64 Lincoln’s Speech Lincoln knows that South can’t hold out much longer
His speech aims at healing wounds… bridging the gap between North and South… unifying people (page 132)

65 Closing In on the End Chapter 28

66 Lincoln He is TIRED Visits Grant at City Point aboard River Queen and stays for 2 weeks Yankees take Five Forks after a counterattack while Pickett eats shad Confederates leave Richmond and burn it The capital of the South now belongs to the Union… and Lincoln walks in

67 Mr. McLean’s Parlor Chapter 29

68 Lee surrenders to Grant
Grant traps Lee and troops, and Lee surrenders to Grant on April 9, 1865 Appomattox Courthouse This is a MUST read Chapter!!!

69 A Play at Ford’s Theatre
Chapter 30

70 April 14, 1865 Our American Cousin at Ford’s Theatre
John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln Lincoln dies on April 15

71 After Words Chapter 31

72 What now? This did nothing to help the South… Lincoln wanted the nation to heal 600,000 dead Slow process of Reconstruction begins Positives – Amendments 13,14, and 15

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