Presentation on theme: "Unit 6: Antebellum America. Sectionalism Feeling more loyal to a certain part of the country than to the country as a whole. You identify with that section."— Presentation transcript:
Sectionalism Feeling more loyal to a certain part of the country than to the country as a whole. You identify with that section more.
Background By 1820, sectionalism has begun to grow –North—industrial economy, trade –South—agricultural economy, slavery The North and South had completely different economic outlooks –Affected politics –South—state’s rights (South Carolina Nullification Crisis, 1828 and 1832) –North—strong central government
Slavery Abolished in the North Never allowed in the Northwest Territory Cotton gin, 1793 (Eli Whitney) Cotton was previously a side crop, tobacco was the money maker More slaves were needed as KING COTTON extended from NC, SC, AL, GA, MS, LA, to TX Slavery became an economic necessity for plantation owners
Building up to the Civil War Congress –11 free and 11 slave states –Missouri would petition to enter, this would upset the balance of power The Civil War –Waiting for a time and place to happen –Most important event in US history –The events leading up to the Civil War are worth studying in detail
Did everyone have slaves in the South? Only 25% of the people in the South were actually affected economically by slavery Only about 1800 people in the South owned 1000 slaves or more. –More people had 1 or 2 slaves or none at all In all of Claiborne Parish (4 parishes combined), there was only one slave in 1860 census
Southern Social Order Upper Class –Plantation owner –19 or more slaves Professionals –Doctors, Lawyers, sometimes Teachers, Bankers Small farmer –Middle class –May have one or two slaves Poor White Trash –No slaves –Called “crackers”, “dirt eaters”, “rednecks” Slaves WHERE DID FREE BLACKS FIT?
Missouri Compromise of 1820 First major controversy over slavery Questions that arose: –Would Missouri come in as a slave state or a free state? –Who determines whether a state is slave or free? –Is slavery allowed in a territory? –Are slaves property?
The Missouri Compromise Senator J.B. Thomas and Henry Clay (The Great Compromiser) Maine was petitioning to become a state as well –Missouri would be slave –Maine would be free No slavery allowed 36˚30’ latitude line in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase Henry Clay
The Abolitionist Movement Started by Quakers Slavery was becoming a moral issue Two types of abolitionists 1.Gradual Emancipation—slowly end slavery in the South Free 10% of slaves a year until all are freed Pay Southerners to free slaves because of economic need 2.Immediate Emancipation—get rid of slavery NOW Saw slavery as a sin; a moral wrong
Abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison –The Liberator Henry Ward Beecher –Methodist minister –Used a mock slave auction to inform people about the horrors of slavery Frederick Douglass –Free black man –Son of former slave –Son of both black and white parents
Abolitionists Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman –Underground Railroad Secret Used Railroad terms –Conductor, station, etc Elijah P. Lovejoy –Printing press –Murdered by an angry mob
Slave Revolts: Greatest fear of whites in South Occurred when slave owners would get lax attitudes 3 significant revolts –Gabriel’s insurrection-late 1700s, VA –Denmark Vessey-1822, SC Idle slave talk of revolt that scared slave owners –Nat Turner-1831, VA Solar eclipse Freed slaves on a few local plantations Most extensive slave revolt
Effects of the Slave Revolts Instilled widespread fear in slave owners John Brown –Harper’s Ferry, VA –Oct. 16, 1859 Wilmot Proviso, 1846 –During the Mexican War –Any land gained would prohibit slavery (violated Missouri Compromise) –Did not pass but continued the argument over slavery
Free Soil Party Created in the 1850’s Anti-extension of slavery into new territories Eventually new members would join the new Republican party
Know-Nothing Party Another third party Founded in 1856 Nativists Wanted to limit foreigners from immigrating, particularly Irish Split over the issue of slavery just as the Whigs did Official name: American Party
Compromise of 1850 1849, California Gold Rush –Qualified for statehood Controversy –California wanted to enter as a free state Opposed by the South Part of CA was below the Missouri Compromise line Debate in Congress –Henry Clay (free) –John C. Calhoun (slave) Two questions to answer –Are slaves property? –Should Congress make the decision about slavery? Webster Clay Calhoun
Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay proposed a compromise to determine whether California would be a free or slave state Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun debated for days
Parts of Compromise of 1850 California admitted as a free state Popular sovereignty would settle future debate on how a state would enter the union Stricter fugitive slave law No slave trade in Washington, D.C.
Franklin Pierce Elected President in 1852 Democrat Presided over a nation torn by sectional strife Last election in which the Whig party would run –Later split over slavery and died out
Transcontinental Railroad In 1854, controversy began over the route of the transcontinental RR North Route –Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas—”Little Giant” –Illinois to California Middle Route –Proposed by Senator Thomas Hart Benton of MO –Wanted the RR to pass through St. Louis Southern Route –Secretary of War—Jefferson Davis of MS –New Orleans, Memphis, Gadsden Purchase
Transcontinental Railroad All three routes would eventually be completed –Middle route was first; Central Pacific connected with the Union Pacific on May 10, 1869 Douglas decided that a central route through IL, KS, and MO would receive the most support –Joined forces with Benton to get central route approved by Congress –Not finished until end of war Completion of railroad at Promontory Point, Utah
Results of the Transcontinental Railroad Route Kansas Territory became important because it would ask for statehood before Utah and New Mexico Compromise of 1850 did not apply here Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 to determine if these territories would have slavery Should they have even discussed slavery here? Hint: Missouri Compromise (36º30’ line)
Kansas-Nebraska Act Proposed by Senator Stephen A. Douglas (IL) Divided Kansas into two new territories, KS and NE Popular Sovereignty Ignored the MO Compromise of 1820-36’ 30” line Favored by the South Passed after a fierce debate in Congress Stephen A. Douglas
Bleeding Kansas Free staters and slave owners moved to Kansas for the vote Two territorial governments were set up –Shawnee and Topeka –Both made laws intended to govern the whole state May 1856, proslavery Kansasans launched a raid against Lawrence –Two free staters were killed John Brown led counterattack at Pottawotamie Creek First major violence over slavery
Brooks-Sumner Affair 1856—during Kansas War Charles Sumner gave speech “Crime Against Kansas” –Starting insulting people including a man from SC whose nephew, Preston Brooks, worked in the House Brooks was told about the family insult and retaliated
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Anti-slavery novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852. Banned in the South, stirred up more abolitionists in North
Dred Scott case, 1857 Dred Scott sued his slave owner for freedom after being taken north of the Missouri Compromise line. The Supreme Court rules in Scott v. Sandford that blacks are not U.S. citizens, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney says slaveholders have the right to take existing slaves into free areas of the county. –Admits that they are _____.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Senate campaign in 1858 Lincoln lost Both candidates had to express their opinions on slavery –Lincoln—anti-extension and slavery was morally wrong –Stephen A. Douglas— popular sovereignty and Dred Scott decision
John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, Virginia 1859 John Brown leads a group of abolitionists and runaway slaves to take arsenal and then plans to start a new state for former slaves by force. U.S. army cadets and soldiers sent in to put down rebellion. Brown captured and hanged.
Lincoln Elected President, 1860 Major candidates: –Republican—Abraham Lincoln –Northern Democrats— Stephen A. Douglas –Southern Democrats— John C. Breckenridge –Constitutional Union Party—John Bell
Secession Begins Crittenden Compromise—last effort to preserve the Union; would allow slavery to extend south of the Missouri Compromise all the way to the Pacific –Lincoln rejected –South Carolina seceded in December 1860 –Six other Southern states would soon follow before the first battle were: FL, LA, TX, MS, AL, and GA –Confederate States of America created Jefferson Davis Richmond, VA-capital The other southern states that seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter were: VA, TN, AR, and NC. Border states that were slave states but never seceded: MD, KY, MO, and DE –Why didn’t they secede? Writ of habeas corpus suspended by Lincoln
Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis—President States’ rights and slavery were main parts of CSA constitution.
The Civil War Begins Battle of Fort Sumter –April 12-14, 1861 –Confederates took one of the last Union forts outside of Charleston, South Carolina
Antebellum Reformers Abolitionists Education Women Religion Temperance
Antebellum Reformers Religious Women’s rights Transcendentalists Prison and asylum reform Temperance movement Utopian societies Education Abolitionists
Religious Movements Second Great Awakening –Timothy Dwight Deism Unitarianism –William Channing Universalism –John Murray Burned Over District –Western New York –Charles Finney Mormons –Joseph Smith Methodist Revival, 1830’s
Women’s Rights Changes in gender roles- –Education –Work –Legal and political rights “Cult of domesticity” Women’s groups formed: –Charity –Churches –Temperance –Abolitionists Seneca Falls Convention, 1848, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Transcendentalists Connected to Romanticism—focuses on feelings over reason to explain life and the universe (contrast to Enlightenment) Affected literature, arts, and thought Spiritual connections to Puritan New England—inner light, conscience 1830s—most influential intellectual and spiritual movement in America
Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson—greatest impact –Individualism and independence Henry David Thoreau—Life in the Woods –Follow your conscience, think for yourself. Find out who you are. Walt Whitman, Nathanial Hawthorne, Edgar Allen Poe, Emily Dickinson, Herman Melville, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Education Reform Led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts Grade and ability grouping Six-month school year Standardized textbooks Teacher training (normal schools) Education improves economic conditions of people and prevents crimes Secular colleges formed Vassar—first academic college for women
Temperance Movement Result of religious revivals Most widespread reform movement Reasons for moderation or banning: –Against Bible –Dangerous to workers, families –Poverty American Temperance Union—1833, promoted total abstinence (tee-totalers)
Prison and Asylum Reform Led by Dorothea Lynde Dix Tied to religious views—take care of others Prisons became correctional facilities End of debtors’ prisons Asylums and hospitals cleaned up and took better care of disabled and mentally ill
Utopian Societies Often tied to religion or transcendentalism Shakers—Mother Ann Lee (NY) Oneida Community— John Humphrey Noyes (VT) New Harmony—George Rapp and Robert Owens (IN) Brook Farm—George Ripley (MA)