Presentation on theme: "Sectionalism and Slavery Lead to Disunion. Slavery becomes a Sectional Interest A number of northern states abolished slavery in the 1780’s and the Ordinance."— Presentation transcript:
Sectionalism and Slavery Lead to Disunion
Slavery becomes a Sectional Interest A number of northern states abolished slavery in the 1780’s and the Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in the newly organized Northwest Territory. In the south slavery was increasing by 1850 southern states had approximately 3.2 million slaves.
Blacks Demonstrate their Opposition to Slavery Cato Conspiracy – early 1700 revolt in South Carolina Gabriel Plot – a slave named Gabriel Prosser led a march on Richmond, Virginia in 1800 Denmark Vesey free black man in Charleston planned an uprising Nat Turner Insurrection- South Hampton County Virginia in 1831 led an uprising that began with the slaying of his master’s family
Missouri Compromise 1820 Maine admitted free to match Missouri being admitted as a slave state. Slavery prohibited in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36*30’
What is an abolitionist? An abolitionist is someone who works to abolish (get rid of) slavery. By 1840 there were 2,000 abolition societies in the Northern states, with a total membership of 175,000
Abolitionists Attack Slavery William Lloyd Garrison wrote the Liberator an antislavery newspaper. Former slaves Frederick Douglas, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth spoke out against slavery.
The Free Soil Party In the election of 1848 antislavery Whigs and Democrats banded together to form the Free Soil Party. They nominated Martin Van Buren as their Presidential candidate. Their slogan was “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men.”
The Election of 1848 Democrats – Lewis Cass Whigs – Zachary Taylor Free Soil – Martin Van Buren Taylor won by a small margin by taking New York State.
Election of 1848
California Gold was discovered in California in 1848 which caused a mass migration. Upon President Taylor’s suggestion a constitution was adopted and California applied for statehood as a free state. Southern states threatened to leave the Union if California was admitted as a free state because it would tip the balance of power to the north in the Senate.
Compromise of 1850 Submitted by Henry Clay Utah and New Mexico have popular sovereignty on the issue of slavery California be admitted as a free state Slave sale but not ownership prohibited in Washington DC Texas gave up part of New Mexico for $10 million Fugitive Slave Law passed
Fugitive Slave Law (1850) Placed fugitive slave cases under the jurisdiction of the federal government Established a special commissioner to issue warrants for the arrest and return of slaves. Authorized the commissioner to force citizens to help. Stiff fines and jail sentences to those who aided the escape of slaves.
A New President In 1850 Zachary Taylor died of Cholera in office. His replacement was Millard Fillmore.
Election of 1852 Whigs – General Winfield Scott – the commander during the Mexican War. Democrats - Franklin Pierce – won the election easily but lost northern support because of his pro southern stance. Following the loss in this election the Whigs dissolved and a new political party Republican was formed.
Election of 1852
Kansas – Nebraska Act (1854) Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and stated that the question of slavery was to be decided on the basis of popular sovereignty. This overturned the Missouri Compromise
Stephen A Douglas
Bleeding Kansas People from both the north and south poured into the area hoping to see their side win the territory. This caused a great deal of fighting. After a series of bloody murders by both sides Kansas became known as bleeding Kansas.
Election of 1856 Democrats – James Buchanan Republicans – John C Fremont Know Nothings – Millard Fillmore Buchanan won less then half of the popular vote but was still the winner.
Election of 1856
Dred Scott In 1834 Dred Scott, a slave, was taken into a free territory. When his master died he sued on behalf of himself and his family for his freedom. The case made it to the Supreme Court where the judge decided that Scott was a slave not a citizen so he could not bring suit in court, he said slaves were property and because Congress could not deny citizens their property they could bring slaves into any territory. This decision enraged many Northerns.
Lincoln Douglas Debates The debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place surrounding the Senate race in Illinois in Lincoln and Douglas traveled to seven towns in Illinois to discuss the critical issues of the day. Lincoln placed Douglas in a difficult position when he cornered Douglas on the issue of popular sovereignty.
Lincoln Douglas Debate
Freeport Doctrine Douglas response to the difficult question of popular sovereignty was that he agreed with the Dred Scott decision that stopped Congress from barring slavery in a territory but that a local government could get rid of slavery if they wanted just by not enforcing it.
Lincoln Douglas Debate
John Brown’s Raid John Brown was a fanatical abolitionist. With 18 men he raided the government arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in order to get weapons to arm slaves for an uprising. He was captured, tried for treason and hung He became a martyr to the antislavery cause
The Raid at Harpers Ferry
The Election of 1860 Northern Democrat – Stephen A Douglas Southern Democrat – John C Breckenridge Republicans – Abraham Lincoln Lincoln won the election but the results painted a grim picture of the nation divided along sectional lines.
Election of 1860
An election that divides the nation
South Carolina Secedes from the Union Earlier in 1860 southern leaders warned that if a Republican candidate won the election the south would take steps to secede. On December 20, 1860 South Carolina took steps to carry out that threat and seceded
Formation of the Confederacy By February 1861 South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas had left the Union. These states met in Alabama and drafted a constitution. They chose Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as President and Alexander H. Stephen of Georgia as Vice President.
Lincoln becomes President In March of 1861 Lincoln took the oath of office. He made it clear in his inaugural address that he would not allow the United States to fall into disunion.